Saturday, November 30, 2019

Summary Drawing The Color Line Essay Example For Students

Summary Drawing The Color Line Essay The chapter goes on about how it was to e a slave, how and Why they became slaves or known at the beginning as servants. As well as how they differed from white servants and the unfairness Of it all Probably no ship modern history has carried a more portentous freight Her cargo? Twenty slaves. (peg. 23, J. Redding) The start of it all was the ship coming to the land to explore but at the end of the day they left with a great prize enslaved a different race to do something that they couldnt do. They knew that they couldnt force the Indians to do the work for them, since Columbus wasnt so successful in that department. They knew if they even tried, since they had such power in their guns, that the Indians would just come back and fire at them but not with guns with their hands or any tools they had. Since they were not use to the new lands and having a hard time staying alive they thought black slaves were the answer. Slavery wasnt legalized yet, so they called them servants even though they had no rights and all they did was work. We will write a custom essay on Summary Drawing The Color Line specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The start to the regular trade in slaves was fifty years before Columbus; the Portuguese took ten African blacks to Lisbon. (Peg. 26) The chapter speaks on how it was so easy to enslave a black because they arent on their own land and they didnt fight back like the Indians. The Africans was more advance then Europe just in their own way, their religion was completely different. Which to the Europeans avgas weird they see that Africans do human sacrifices which are not normal to them. The Africans were skilled in farming. This was what they were looking for. They had the Africans do their work while they relaxed. The Africans had nowhere to go so they couldnt just up in leave they didnt know where they were. As far as the difference between a White and black servant, well the White servants had way more rights than a lack they white servants were able to stop working for their masters at a point and they got paid more. With a black slave they either made little money or none at all and there masters owned them they could keep adding years to their sentence if they choose too. Heres just a gist of the difference between a black and white servants, when in 1640 three servants tried to run away, the two white were punished with a lengthening of their service. But, as for the court put it, the third being a Negro named John Punch shall serve his maser or his assigns for the time of his natural life. (peg. 30) Another case would be in 1640, we have a Negro woman servant Who begot a child by Robert Sweat, a White man. The Court ruled that the said Negro woman shall be whip at the whipping post and the said sweat shall tomorrow in the forenoon do public penance for his offense at James psychiatric (peg. 30) So all this is saying is that all Sweat has to do is confess his sins when the woman gets Whipped. This is unjust the guy put his penis inside her its not like she forced him. With this you see how unjust the world really is and how we treat people just by their skin. As far as the chapter mean Im not going to agree or disagree with it cause how the Europeans treated people was disgusting and no one should have to be ripped from there county because someone is either to lazy or doesnt know what they are doing so they have other people work for them in unfit conditions. .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .postImageUrl , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:hover , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:visited , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:active { border:0!important; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:active , .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413 .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u76ba169a9ad3cb268e4aebb10ed28413:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Art Spiegelman's Nature Vs. Nurture EssayThe intentions of the author were to inform us how it really was and how the whites differ from the blacks and why Europeans really need help with things. I didnt find really anything interesting with this chapter it kind of disgusted me on how societies really are and how people treated other people of a different skin one. The only thing I found out that I didnt know what slavery had to be legalized other than that I had the gist of things. What the blacks went through is extremely sad and people didnt really look at the big picture of things. The chapter opened my eyes into seeing how the world really was how we treat people differently and continue to treat people differently. This book so far is showing me that our societies past is messed up and how selfish everyone is. It shouldnt matter if youre a different color or come from a different ethnic background we are still a human race vita the same doffs and body organs. NO one person should be treated differently we all should be considered equal. Citation Zion, Howard.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Why its Important to Write Right in the Legal Profession †And 5 Common Writing Pitfalls to Avoid

Why its Important to Write Right in the Legal Profession – And 5 Common Writing Pitfalls to Avoid The following article, by Brenda Bernstein, was first published on In a well-publicized case, a federal judge in Florida denied a lawyer’s motion (without prejudice, so he can re-file the motion) stating that it was â€Å"riddled with unprofessional grammatical and typographical errors that nearly render the entire motion incomprehensible.† Read the full article here: Judge Labels Lawyers Motion Nearly Incomprehensible, Marks Up Errors ABA Journal The judge highlighted the following problems, among others: Incorrect use of apostrophes. Typographical errors (using the word â€Å"this† instead of â€Å"thus† and the word â€Å"full† instead of â€Å"for†). Incorrect placement of periods and commas outside of quotation marks. Wrong word use (using the phrase the plaintiff â€Å"had attended on filing† this action, instead of saying the plaintiff had â€Å"intended† to file an action). One very long sentence. Don’t let this happen to you! If you write legal documents in any way, shape or form, it is absolutely essential to use correct spelling and grammar. In a famous case in England, a traffic ticket was thrown out because it was issued for illegal â€Å"stoping† instead of â€Å"stopping†; the alleged perpetrator had conducted no mining activities (â€Å"stoping† is a mining term) and so was found not guilty. I bet that police officer never issued another â€Å"stoping† ticket. Past or Present? One extremely common error I see amongst law students is using the word â€Å"lead† to mean the past tense of â€Å"lead.† This mistake could get you in trouble, since the past tense of â€Å"lead† is â€Å"led† (with no a). You could be writing in the wrong tense! Example or Complete List? Another place you can easily convey the wrong meaning is with â€Å"i.e.† and â€Å"e.g.† When you use â€Å"i.e.† it means â€Å"that is† or â€Å"in other words.† The proper way to follow â€Å"i.e.† is with a definition or complete list. For example: The defendant was charged with illegal stoping, i.e., mining activity. â€Å"E.g.† means â€Å"for example.† The proper way to follow â€Å"e.g.† is with a partial list of possibilities. For example: The motion was denied for bad grammar, e.g., typographical errors and wrong word use. If â€Å"i.e.† were used here, we would need to provide a complete list of the examples of bad grammar. (For a more thorough explanation of i.e. and e.g., read my post Common Grammatical Errors: Should You Use i.e. or e.g.?) Law or Liberty? Do you know the difference between a statute and a statue? Statutes are laws. Statues are sculptures. We have statutes of limitations and a Statue of Liberty. Don’t get these confused. You might want to remember the extra â€Å"t† for â€Å"time† when it’s a statute of limitations, or for â€Å"text† when it’s any written law. And you might think of following those statutes to a â€Å"T† (or 3)! Proper Punctuation: Periods and Commas Inside Quotation Marks To touch on one of the Florida judge’s beefs, periods and commas, in the United States, always go inside quotation marks, even when they are not part of the quotation, e.g., The defendant was arrested for â€Å"illegal stoping.† Although there are rare exceptions to this rule, they will probably not appear in legal writing (they are more likely to show up in technical writing). For a detailed discussion of this issue, see my blog post The Quandary of Quotation Marks ( ). Proper Punctuation: Apostrophes Many people incorrectly use apostrophes to make plural words. Don’t do it! Did you notice that the plural of apostrophe is NOT â€Å"apostrophe’s†? It is â€Å"apostrophes†! The plural words lawyers, judges, laws, statutes, DUIs and the 1990s do NOT take apostrophes. Use an apostrophe and then an â€Å"s† to make a singular possessive. The lawyer’s brief was riddled with errors. The judge’s ruling was final. Use an â€Å"s† and then an apostrophe to make a plural possessive. The five lawyers’ arguments diverged widely. All the county judges’ courtrooms contain the latest in audio-visual equipment. Put your apostrophes in the right place – and avoid annoying the judge. So Many Chances to Err! There are multiple ways to make writing errors in legal documents, and I have only covered a few. My most important advice is to proofread and proofread again! Get a second pair of eyes to check your work. If you have grammar questions you want answered, I will answer them to the best of my ability in the comments section of this blog. I look forward to hearing from you†¦ Happy writing!

Friday, November 22, 2019

A Readers Responsibility

A Readers Responsibility Yall ever read Suite T, the blog for Southern Writers Magazine? Its pretty good, and this past week,  Terry Whalin  posted  4 Ways to Support Writers. I want to take this a step further and not state HOW a reader can help a writer, but WHY they have a responsibility to do so. When a reader picks up a book to read, they expect to invest hours into the entertainment. The author and publisher on the other end are waiting with fingers crossed to hear how the reader liked it. They need feedback to better understand how to proceed with subsequent works. Any type of industry needs feedback. Are they doing it right? Are they creating the right product? Publishers, agents, and bookstores hang on public feedback to determine whether an author is worth fooling with. Silence is deadly. So, if a reader likes a story, or an author, they need to speak up. Otherwise they risk losing a good story, or worse, a good author. Lets talk about a readers responsibility when they read a book: 1) Buy the  book. An occasional freebie is fine, especially when test-driving an author. However, authors, publishers, agents, cover designers, etc. depend on income to eat and put a roof over their head. Buy a book. 2) Write a review.  Do you want more stories like the one you just read? Then post a review. Otherwise, how is anyone supposed to know that this type of writing needs to continue? Call it a thank-you to the people who fought hard to put that book in your hands. They cannot read your mind. 3) Reply to blog posts.  Blogs are free, frequently used to sell books or an authors prowess. Dont read a post  and silently blow away. At least thank the writer or blog host. Yes, youre busy, but so are they. What if you did a job and nobody told you whether it was good or bad?  Again, the silence is a killer. 4) Take responsibility for your social media.  Dont just read. Dont just rant about politics or the neighbors noise next door. Dont just take and not give back. When you see a book promoted, and you like it or the author, then retweet or share. Its a button, people. 5) Use your word-of-mouth.  If you do not relay to others about a good book, and everyone else remains just as silent, that good book disappears along with the subsequent books after it from that author. Many an author has withered away due to lack of feedback, because feedback equates to sales, which equates to contracts and/or earning a living. Ive seen good writers think they were no goodall because readers remained quiet. Oh, and if youre a writer? Magnify that responsibility

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The individual and the State Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The individual and the State - Essay Example These configurations alternate between those put forward by two of the founding figures of Western political thought—Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau—who each offer different understandings of the relation between freedom and equality. No version is decisive, due in part to the problems with each account. With both Hobbes and Rousseau, we cannot understand their thoughts on freedom and equality without first recalling their different takes on the reality of lived experience, what Hobbes calls the state of nature. In Leviathan, Hobbes outlines a state of nature in which war and conflict are the natural way of things. Human beings, fundamentally insecure in their person, able to kill and be killed, cannot gain a sense of safety in the state of nature. Instead, the risks always remains that some individual, or group of individuals, will plot and carry out one's demise. Because of the intrinsic scarcity and uneven distribution of goods, people tend to use their capa city to kill each other to suit their own needs, as nature demands. As such the state of nature far too often induces a state of war, wherein the life of man is â€Å"solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short† (Hobbes). ... ality and freedom is essentially negative, which is to say that it is when man is most equal that he is most in danger, and thus constantly beset by impediments that impinge upon his freedom. In the state of nature, all are equally able to kill or be killed, to steal or to be stolen from, but such a situation is untenable, and reason demands that it be redressed and the situation improved. Some might contend that this state thus produces ultimate freedom, but Hobbes seems to think otherwise, since the risk of death and even the threat of danger impede one's ability to pursue their own objectives. It is for this reason that social compacts are produced, and common-wealths agreed to, even though they limit one's freedom. In Hobbes' thinking, freedom â€Å"signifieth (properly) the absence of Opposition† and a â€Å"Free-Man, is he, that in those things, which by his strength and wit he is able to do, is not hindered to do what he has a will to† (Hobbes). At the same time, the state that comes in to rectify these problems and produce a civil society does not actually generate new, more robust liberties. Instead, Hobbes argues that with the inequality of the state comes new forms of â€Å"oppositions.† He writes: â€Å"But as men, for the atteyning of peace, and conservation of themselves thereby, have made an Artificall Man, which we call a Common-wealth; so also have they made Artificiall Chains, called Civill Lawes, which they themselves, by mutuall covenants, have fastened at one end, to the lips if that Man, or Assembly, to whom they have given the Soveraigne Power...† (Hobbes). In a civil society, in a common-wealth, some are better off than others, and the society is thus less equal; the role of the state, if it is a just state, is to ensure those negative freedoms

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Education Assessment in Practice Research Paper

Education Assessment in Practice - Research Paper Example In my application of the ongoing assessments in my role as an educator I have decided to ensure that I meet all the five dimensions of a good and quality classroom assessment. In my role as an educator, I plan to explore different technologies available for assessment in assessing my students. This technology and instruments will be helping me to design an assessment that can attempt to reveal what my students are thinking. Various technologies that I am planning to adapt to help me with the assessments are in place. Some of these technologies are use of a response device designed to work with multiple-choice and true-false questions, use of group scribbles, and the use of a network-graphing calculator. I am also planning to be evaluating my applications of this assessment tools to ensure a continued improvement in the way I will be assessing my students. I will be using the simple response device designed to work in multiple-choice and true-false questions with information about my students. If this kind of device is carefully designed and used in a meaningful way, it is believed that answers obtained to these types of questions can give information that can be used to assess students and suggest on the measure that need to be taken to improve their learning (USDE, 2012). I will be posing multiple-choice questions to my class, ask my students to use response devices to answer the questions and then have them discuss those questions with their peers who have different answers. My main objective to using this kind of assessment will be trying to raise the levels of engagement of my students in the learning process. Another type of technology that I am planning to be applying in my assessment as an educator is the use of Group Scribbles. According to USED (2012), this is a more sophisticated system that supports peer instruction by capturing complex responses from students. This could allow my student to contribute in classroom discussions using the enhanced chan ces that the technology offers. If I plan to explain how an idea can be applied, I will be asking groups of my students to explain different ways in which this idea can be applied and share their explanations by placing them on a white board. This will ensure that my students learn by explaining their work to other students and through the feedbacks they receive or provide. I also plan to be using rubrics to express what is expected of them in any kind of assessment I decide to give them. This rubrics will be helping my student to understand how quality is judged in the different undertakings they are assigned to undertake in different fields they are working in. I could also use the rubrics to give assessment scores and ratings that will always be demonstrating the measure they are intended to measure and which will always ensure consistency no matter who is selected to mark the assessments. This will ensure that my students obtain the fairest assessment available thus motivating t hem to enhance their learning. Discuss which element of formative assessment is the most difficult to get right away According to Iron (2007), the four elements of a formative assessment are goals which are clear to students; the feedback which measures the student’s current learning state; formative feedback which can be used as a means for closing the gap between the student’

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Legality and Effectiveness Essay Example for Free

Legality and Effectiveness Essay This paper will discuss the aspects of B. F. Skinner’s book Walden Two and the implications toward determinism or free will implied through his characterizations and ideologies. The debate in this paper will present the dichotomy of free will and determinism and will end with support on the side of free will. Definitions for either ideal will be discussed in the paper as well as a presentation of Walden Two being a parody of Plato’s Republic which in turn will also give a succinct definition as to whether or not the book was written in a free will aspect or that pertaining to determinism. The connections between Skinner’s concepts of free will and determinism are rampant throughout the text, and the fashion by which the book exemplifies Plato’s Republic is striking in its context. Plato’s Republic exerts diatribes and discussion between his protagonists match exactly those ideologies presented in altercative fashion in Skinner’s text. Points are present in Skinner’s Walden Two through the debates or seeming debates between the protagonists. The underlying idea behind each writing is that of discovering and reinforcing utopia. Although at times Skinner’s work hinges upon the concepts of determinism as in the statement, â€Å"†¦in the long run man is determined by the state† (257) there is also the dialectical approach which would state that the society or the state in this reference would first have to be formed by the collective of free wills in order for a system of codes to be first instated. The viable principles of this code remark on the importance of salubrious living which is also dominated by general tolerance (148). The subject of utopia evolves in his work through the process of avoiding interpersonal conflict; therefore the free will which so dominates the literature cannot in this utopian state dominate the free will of other societal members and in this paradox is found several conundrums. The ideologies present in Walden Two exert themselves on experimental psychology and behaviorism. This means that Walden Two is an experiment in lieu of understanding behavior as a function of environmental histories of experiencing consequences. These experiences delve into the facet of Walden Two’s society being presented as a utopia due to their practice of scientific social planning and the way in which they condition their children (as mentioned prior in the codes). Walden Two is structured after Thoreau’s Walden (as well as Plato’s Republic) which basis life after a lifestyle in which war is not supported and the fostering of competition is not founded which therefore leads inextricably to social strife being ousted. Also, Skinner presents a society by which minimal consumption is found and a rich social relationships, personal happiness, and a satisfying work and leisure life is deliberately introduced into each area of society through the codes cited in the paper formerly. Free will then becomes a factor in this utopian society due to its infrastructure. Skinner highlights throughout Frazier’s diatribes that the technology of behavior is what makes a society more palatable to the members which inherit and live in that society. Therefore, the autonomous agent is not the driving force of such a society but rather the driving force becomes the original character design of Walden Two. In Skinner’s society free will is further determined through infrastructure by way of Walden Two giving credit to the individual for work accomplished by their own actions. Thus, the society is based on the originating force of a paradigm or code or action and this is where the definition of free will may be found throughout the context of the text. The actions of the characters in the society are not deterministically grounded but instead, the environment and genetic potentials of freedom cause the society to be based on reality whereby reality in this sense is determined by the individual and not by the society or methods of actions found through the environment in which free will becomes an impetus of determinism. The Experimental Analysis of Behavior and Applied Behavior Analysis are techniques intrinsic in human affairs as defined by Skinner. In support of the notion of free will, Skinner writes, â€Å"I have only one important characteristic, I’m stubborn. I’ve had only one idea in my life—a true idee fixe, the idea of having my own way† (271). The idea of determinism is that free will is a characteristic that is nonexistent because factors in a person’s environment do not allow for the paradigm of choice to have any relevance in decisions, desires, wants, or overall personal satisfaction or other emotions characterized through free will (jealousy, love, ego, possessiveness, etc. ). Frazier however points out to Castle that â€Å"determinism doesn’t entail that behavior is always predictable any more than it implies that the weather is always predictable† (391). Society and social as well as psychological behavior are products which hinge upon causal laws which means that we can’t have free will; but counter to this argument it is presented in the body of text that free will is defined through choices that are predictable in advance which is truly counter to the core definition of free will in which determinism of events and actions cannot be measured through prescience or any other advanced indicators. Frazier argues that free will and therefore free choices would be unpredictable, but contrasting this belief, Frazier states, â€Å"â€Å"For the last several thousand days, I’ve chosen of my own free will not to dye my hair orange. Therefore, it is very probable that tomorrow, I will choose of my own free will not to dye my hair orange. † (391). This is not a strong counter argument to determinism and by this omission, it is proven that free will is the factor involved in Skinner’s Walden Two, because Frazier’s own volition in the above argument truly states that he thinks free will is only based on unpredictability. The basis of the argument in Walden Two that is in support of determinism is that if determinism is true then free will by opposition cannot be true, however, in this circular argument there exists fallacies for, Skinner is assuming that there cannot co-habit a society in which both determinism and free will cannot become hegemony; however, this cannot be a reputable argument since its basis is only found in the fact that one cannot be true simultaneously. Castle argues in favor of free will through the basis of experience. Both Castle and Frazier argue that a person’s behavior can be controlled or restricted through the enforcement of force or physical restraint. Through such enforcement however, the propelling of enforcement further leads to the person being forced upon to react by way of such force promoting animosity and feel unfree which furthers the concept of free will in the fact of a reaction to force. Although Skinner does not promote force as a form of punishment in Walden Two there is a definite cause in the restriction of force which leads the reader to believe that free will is trying to be staunched in the society and therefore enforcement cannot be used because it simply incites free will. Instead, Skinner basis his utopia on the process of positive reinforcement. This means members of Walden Two are given items they like or the items they like are taken away from them if they have acted negatively. Thus, positive reinforcement is not determined to be the same as punishment and therefore, the society can be relatively defined as staunching free will which means that the society is in recognition of free will, yet, free will in the society persists because Walden Two designs its infrastructure after scotching free will, at least in the instance of positive reinforcement. Walden Two is furthered designed to bring forth a utopian society by way of defining behavior as being determined through past history of positive reinforcement, as well as the presence of environment. Frazier says â€Å"it’s not control that’s lacking when one feels ‘free,’ but the objectionable control of force. † In the very best society, people will feel free because its rulers use the science of â€Å"reinforcement theory† or operant conditioning to elicit desirable behavior without the use of force. Frazier: â€Å"Now that we know how positive reinforcement works†¦we can be more successful in our cultural design. † (p. 394). Thus, although the concept of positive reinforcement highlights behaviorism, the act of reinforcement is further aiding in the development of free will simply by recognizing that free will is inherent and as an inherent quality measures must be taken in order to counteract free will, in the view of positive reinforcement in Walden Two. The concept of past history being of importance to behaviorism in both free will and determinism, Stace states, â€Å"If a man’s actions were wholly determined by chains of causes stretching back into the remote past, so that they could be predicted beforehand by a mind which knew all the causes, it was assumed that they could not in that case be free. This implies that a certain definition of actions done from free will was assumed, namely that they are actions not wholly determined by causes or predictable beforehand. Let us shorten this by saying that free will was defined as meaning indeterminism. This is the incorrect definition which has led to the denial of free will. As soon as we see what the true definition is we shall find that the question whether the world is deterministic†¦or in a measure indeterministic †¦is wholly irrelevant to the problem† (Stace 1952: 860). Thus, the managers have free will over the utopian society in Walden Two because the citizenry are instructed to go to the managers with any problems and to have them sort out the problems, which means that the managers, the controllers of this utopian society are based after free will in order to determine justice, or even to determine positive reinforcement. Work Cited Doyle, Jim. Treatment for Rapists, Molesters Under Fire Cost, Legality and Effectiveness at Issue In Extended Program. San Francisco Chronicle. (11 July, 2004). (Online). Available: http://www. sfgate. com/cgi bin/article. cgi? file=/chronicle/archive/2004/07/11/MNGB57IU41. DTL Isaacson, Walter. A Declaration of Mutual Dependence. The New York Times. July 4 2004. pg. 4. Skinner, B. F. Walden Two. The Macmillan Company, New York. 1948. Stace, Walter T. Is Determinism Inconsistent with Free Will Staddon, John. On Responsibility and Punishment. The Atlantic Monthly. 275(2) (1995). Pg88.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Revised Paper On German Modernism -- essays research papers

The Significance of Modernity Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means, which would help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. Modris Eckstein and Marshall Berman examine both, the damages and benefits of modernity. Eckstein looks at individual changes that lead to the overall acceptance of modernity. He examines Germany, and how the lives of every citizen was altered following the revolutionary changes of the first half of the 20th century. Marshall Berman, on the other hand, assesses modernity as an all-encompassing characteristic of certain societies. He analyzes whether or not large-scale changes that societies made, improved the well being of their inhabitants. Rites of Spring, by Modris Eckstein, gives an overview of all the modifications Germany experienced, in the first half of the 20th century. Eckstein considers these individual alterations to be an attempt, by German society to modernize itself. General beliefs in German nationalism, and the treatment of homosexuals, are two of the several topics Eckstein uses to describe the aforementioned change in German livelihood. These two subjects encompass Ecksteins belief of a national German movement towards a unified culture. â€Å"It is a book about the emergence, in the first half of this century, of our modern conscious? At the turn of the century Germany was a divided nation that did not have a sense of national pride. In the forthcoming years, the convictions of all German citizens changed and the nation became unified. Eckstein attributes this massive modernization of German nationalism to the ongoing threat of war. The citizens of Germany relinquished their internal feuds, and centered their attention on the enemy outside of their borders. German focus changed abruptly because their newfound enemy was Russia and Great Britain. To the German people an assault by Russia and England was an attack on all forms of German livelihood. â€Å"We are defending in this moment all that is German Kultur and German freedom? Therefore, all German citizens came together in support of their brethren and decreed their approval of foreign bloodshed. Along with a new sense of nationalism, Eckstein believes accepta... ...o gay, or what a homo? The turning point of my approach, towards homosexuals, came when I met a guy named Adam. Adam enlightened me by explaining the true aspects of homosexuality. He also informed me that my vocabulary was hateful. After that day I came to understand that individuals who deplore homosexuals or use derogatory language are no different than those who are racists. Unfortunately, large portions of Americans do not hold the same stance. For this reason I can relate my modernist perspective to that of Eckstein’s. Individually, some people have changed their opinion of homosexuals, but the nation as a whole has done little to accept their lifestyle. Lastly, I can also relate to Marshall Bermans attitude towards modernism. I believe that in certain societies one can notice a general trend towards modernist behavior. It is my belief that one can observe this in modern day Germany. As opposed to the conservative regimes of the 30’s and 40’s, Germany presently lives in one of the world’s most progressive societies. This is a perfect example of Berman’s argument because the German people came together and implanted their newfound convictions into their everyday way of life.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Gender Discrimination

Social stratification is the structured form of social inequality within a ranked group of people that bring about unequal financial rewards, such as a person’s income, and power or property, which is brought upon by wealth in a society. The social stratification systems come in many different ways and forms. For example, slavery, castes, social class, race, and gender are just some of the issues that are affected by stratification. This essay will particularly focus on the issue of stratification by gender, or in other words, gender inequality.Gender inequality or also known as gender stratification, is the unequal distribution of a society’s wealth, power, and privilege between females and males. (Scott and Schwartz, 2000). When the issue is approached, it is evident that the majority of the women are the oppressed as in turn the men being the oppressor. This idea of the oppressed vs. the oppressor is evident throughout history; even in religious terms, some can date back to God’s creation.For example, in the Bible, God had caught Adam and Eve eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which was forbidden. It is written in the Bible, â€Å"To the woman he (God) said, I will greatly increase your pain in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for you husband, and he will rule over you. † (Genesis 3:16). Around the mid-nineteenth century until nowadays, three beliefs about women and men have prevailed as part of biology or evolution. One, men and women have different psychological and sexual natures, two- men are inherently the dominant or superior sex, and three – both male female difference and male dominance are natural. † (Bem, 1993). Considering these three beliefs, women experience gender inequality in different environments, stereotypes, and occupations. For example, women are stereotyped to be only a stay at home wife and to be in an environment where they are respo nsible for cleaning the house, cooking dinner, and taking care of the children.Nowadays, there are more women known to have jobs and not a stay at home wife, but yet they are still responsible, or show some responsibility for cleaning the house, cooking dinner, and taking care of the children. As for occupations among women, they experience the limitations of the occupations available. Women also experience less pay or earnings, and the devaluation of their work by society. An article, Social Class and Gender, written by Nancy Andes, expresses occupational stratification by gender inequality through the comparison of three theoretical frameworks or perspectives.The first theoretical framework is the sex segregation model, which is where sex is the only characteristic that affects the placement of a worker into a profession or occupation. The second theoretical framework is the pure class model, which is where the workers’ position of determined by their status or position in the society and how much authority and ownership they possess. The third theoretical framework that is used is the integrated gendered social class model, which is where gender and class perform together that affect the positioning of women and or men in the labor force.After Andes introduces the three theoretical frameworks, she explains each frameworks or approaches in depth, in relation to a table that expresses the earnings and occupations of men and women. The source of the table, or known as empirical evidence, is taken from the UC Bureau of the Census in 1989. The table expressed many different types of employment in the labor force. Within that employment of occupation, the table included the percentage of women within that occupation, women’s annual earnings within the occupation, and even the men’s annual earnings in that same occupation. Read also: Our Changing Society

Saturday, November 9, 2019

The Historic Rise of Christian Fundamentalism in the United States in the Late Nineteenth Century.

Fundamentalism is a religious response to modernity. Although the term is frequently used in a popular context to mean any religious position perceived to be traditional, archaic or scripture-bound, it has a specific meaning from an historical perspective, and a genealogy which has seen the term change from the self-referential description of a particular religious group, to a term which may have lost its impact through misplaced, and indiscriminate, application.Originally used by a specific group of American Protestants, who shared a similar world-view and theology, Fundamentalism grew from individuals within disparate denominations finding common cause to an organized movement with the power to challenge modernity at the level of the courtroom and the popular press. This essay will consider just how we can account for Fundamentalism’s emergence in the US by first considering its historical roots within the Great Awakening, and up to the 1920’s with the Scopes â€Å"M onkey† trial.Secondly it will consider the theological innovations that underpinned Fundamentalism by exploring both Dispensationalism and Premillenarianism, before finally placing Fundamentalism within its sociological background by looking at broader cultural movements in American society, and considering how changes in both the scientific and intellectual spheres challenged the traditional place of evangelical Protestantism. Christian fundamentalism has been succinctly defined by George Marsden as â€Å"militantly anti-modernist Protestant evangelicalism. In the latter part of the 19th century and into the first decades of the 20th they developed specific beliefs and operating principles that set them apart from what was, in their view, dangerously liberal evangelical Protestantism. In a post-Darwinian world the Protestant worldview, particularly in the US, came under a number of specific threats from advances in science and contemporary intellectual developments. Unlike t he liberals, who sought compromise with these developments, it was the Fundamentalists â€Å"chief duty to combat uncompromisingly ‘modernist’ theology and certain secularizing cultural trends. † This militant tendency would eventually lead them to challenge modernity in the courtroom, and through utilizing the political system to achieve their ends. Although Fundamentalists were anti-modernity, they were not anti-modern in their readiness to embrace new forms of communication media. Newspapers, publishing, cinema and radio were all exploited as effective methods to publicize their agenda. The very term â€Å"Fundamentalism† was coined in 1920, in the Watchman-Examiner newspaper, by Curtis Lee Laws, who defined fundamentalists as those ready to â€Å"do battle royal for the Fundamentals. Traditional evangelicalism, from which Fundamentalism would grow, had taken shape during the Great Awakening of the 18th century. A series of Christian revivals had broug ht together a number of disparate movements, and blended Calvinist and Methodist theologies along with experiential conversion into a powerful and popular Christian movement. It also preached on the evils of alcohol and other forms of vice, in addition to the need to evangelize to the poor for their moral renewal through a social Gospel that emphasized personal piety and good works. Nineteenth century America started out as an overwhelmingly Protestant country.The specific lineage of the majority group was traced back to northern European ancestry, from the settlers who had travelled across the Atlantic in search of land in which they might practice a truly reformed Christianity. Different colonies along the eastern seaboard had been under the theocratic rule of the different Protestant sects, yet all had a common purpose in implementing God’s will as laid out in the Bible. This would all change with the arrival in the 1820s off the first large scale immigration of Catholics, along with Jews and other religious minorities.Together with homegrown religious movements like the Mormons, these new groups altogether changed the religious landscape of the US, and helped to reconcile the different protestant groups to one another. Evangelicalism emerged as a â€Å"voluntary association of believers founded on the authority of the Bible alone. † The evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin had a profoundly worring effect on the victorian Protestant mindset. They, along with advances in philology, geology and the historical critical method of Biblical scholarship began to undermine the foundations of religious certitude.The Bible had been seen as the very word of God and was therefore the only guide a Christian would need to guide her through the ethical and moral trials of life, safe in the knowledge that God’s will was being followed. The Bible had always been revered as â€Å"the revealed word of God, correct in every detail and in need of no add ition† to the text, and yet it was now under sustained questioning within academia. Towards the end of the 19th century an interdenominational revivalist network, which sought to counter these trends, began to take shape around the era’s greatest evangelist, Dwight L.Moody. A one-time shoe salesman, Moody had a conversion experience to evangelicalism. After a massively popular tour of Ireland and the UK in the mid 19th century he returned to the US as a preacher with the power to attract very large audiences. Moody was of the generation immediately preceding that of the Fundamentalists, but he had nonetheless provided them with a sufficiently well developed network (which included his famous Bible Institute), and a strong charismatic personality about which the emerging movement could coalesce.Moody, who could not countenance â€Å"Liberals in what they were teaching or doing to the Christian Faith†, found common ground with Fundamentalist thinkers and opinion sh apers. Starting in 1910 a series of small booklets appeared called â€Å"The Fundamentals†. Each booklet contained a series of essays by a leading evangelical thinker, plus a number of personal stories that attested to a radicalized evangelicalism.Although Fundamentalism, as we now know it, did not emerge as an absolute ideology from this publication alone, it was emerging as a broad movement within evangelical Protestantism as more of its membership took an increasingly hard line on modernity. As they saw themselves â€Å"losing control of their churches, their families, their working environments, their schools and their nation† certain members withdrew into a specific eschatological belief system and a principle of separatism from liberal protestant thinkers.Organized around a system of Bible â€Å"conventions† that were held in the birthplace of Fundamentalism, New England, leading evangelistic preachers and scholars contemplated their â€Å"opposition to m odernist theology and to some of the relativistic cultural changes that modernism embraced. † Relativism, especially where the revealed word of God was concerned, was a hated innovation. Fundamentalists refused to acknowledge the relative merit of each religion, or each Christian denomination; either their beliefs were right and were worth defending, or they were wrong.They would defend an absolute truth, but not a relative one. The second decade of the 20th century saw the Fundamentalists win two important battles, but gain public opprobrium as a direct result. The first, the Scopes â€Å"Monkey† trial of 1925, was a victory that saw the courts uphold the teaching of the Genesis account of human origins over the empirical Darwinian view. The case became a cause celebre throughout the US, and opened up the Fundamentalist position to widespread ridicule through a largely hostile press. The second front in which they had a pyric victory was over prohibition.The ban on alc ohol consumption was in place from 1919-1933, during which time illegal alcohol distillation and sales fueled the rise of mafia organizations, and encouraged political and police corruption. Public morality did not increase as a result of banning alcohol, and the public resented the intrusion of religious ideology into public life. Afterwards Fundamentalists largely withdrew from public life to nurse their wounds and regroup, rather than retreat. Fundamentalism arose as a â€Å"historically new religious movement with distinctive beliefs† from its base in evangelical Protestantism.These beliefs, which they would go to great lengths to promote and defend, centered on their own conception of themselves as a special people in God’s eyes with a Biblically mandated mission to prepare the way for the return of Christ. The two most characteristic beliefs, which defined the Protestant Christian Fundamentalist, were dispensationalism and premillenarianism. Fundamentalists drew their theology from a literal reading of Christian scripture, with a special emphasis being placed on the eschatological books of Revelation and Daniel, from which they were able to discern God’s plan for mankind’s future.A literal interpretation of Holy Scripture demands the believer is able to trust the text as a revealed source of God’s will. Fundamentalists believed the Bible to be the actual word of God, as revealed to the authors of the various books it contains. The message it contains must be divinely ordered; free from the errors human agency is so prone to. Inerrancy in the Bible, specifically the King James version, was the central pillar Fundamentalist theologians developed their understanding of God’s will upon.They believed the Bible free from all mistakes, errors and faults; that it was in an unchanged condition since the earliest days of Christianity’s founding fathers. It could therefore be absolutely relied upon by the individual for her understanding of the words and deeds of Christ, his followers and his message of salvation. It was the â€Å"infallible word of God and hence anything which challenged it†¦was not just wrong but sinful†¦Ã¢â‚¬  especially for the evangelical who took a liberal position, and risked personal damnation by doing so.Another central tenant, that of â€Å"dispensationalism†, became a hallmark belief for Fundamentalists. It is a scheme for â€Å"interpreting all of history on the basis of the Bible, following the principle of ‘literal where possible. ’† They believed that history was divided up into seven distinct eras, or dispensations. Each of these eras was marked by a catastrophe for mankind, so the first dispensation was recorded in Genesis as the period of Eden, which culminated in the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the earthly paradise with the stain of original sin.Others dispensations ended with Noah and the flood, or the Tower of Babel and mutually incomprehensible languages etc. The present age was known as the â€Å"age of the Church† and would culminate in the apocalypse as foretold by the revelation of John in the New Testament. This would be followed by the return of Christ to earth and the final of the seven dispensations; that of the reign of God on earth. The revelation of John, as interpreted by the Fundamentalists, speaks of a period of time numbering one thousand years in which Christ will reign before judgment on humanity.Theological debate within evangelical Christianity takes two approaches to just when the millennium will take place – one side, the moderate evangelicals, believes there will be a millennium followed by judgement and the other side, that of the Fundamentalists, believes that Christ will return first, judge human kind and institute the period of heaven on earth. This belief, of Christ’s return followed by the millennium, is known as premillenarianism and became fo r Christians with fundamentalist leanings the focal point for both their heological positioning, and for informing both their political and social policies. Moderate evangelical millenarians believed that helping those worse off in this world, the poor and the destitute, would bring about Christ’s return through instigating a period of prosperity first, hence they involved themselves in the social Gospel through good works and charity. Premillenarians, on the other hand, waited on the return of Christ first and therefore did not believe that charitable work would save souls from the coming judgment.Theological development within fundamentalism was therefore a response to greater sociological conditions prevalent in the US in the early decades of the 20th century. Post-war America was a radically different country than it had been just two generations before. Sociological conditions had altered in ways that elicited a response from some Protestants that were analogous to the e xperience of ethno-cultural groups newly arrived in the US; Protestants had, in Marsden’s analogy, â€Å"experienced the transition from the old world of the nineteenth century to the new world of the twentieth wholly involuntarily. Fundamentalists had experienced a traumatic cultural shock as the result of changes to American society that had been rapid, far-ranging and decisive. Structural changes within the family, the work place and the political order had dislodged the Protestant world-view in the US from a position of being, in their view, normative to a relative position in the panoply of religious identities in the modern American experience. Traditional Protestantism was â€Å"no longer a matter of necessity; it was a choice and a leisure activity. This fragmentation of Protestant identity was a mirror of broader changes that had taken place within society. Social institutions had undergone a shift, within modernity, that fed into the Fundamentalist idea of change as anathema to stability and as undermining a true understanding of Christianity, and its role as the only sure path to personal salvation. The family unit had been, within living memory for many of Fundamentalism’s early adherents, a stable basis upon which to build the religious life.As an agrarian unit, the family had encouraged hierarchy with the father on top of a structure that spent most of its time together. This was necessary for the time consuming, and expensive, business of agricultural production. Family life, which included work, education, prayer and social instruction, had once guaranteed the propagation of the next generation of family, worker and religious adherent. Modernity brought new social roles, and new forms of social mobilization, through factory production and office work.Men, and to a lesser degree women, now traveled to a place of employment outside of the family home. The area of the US that had seen the greatest amount of industrialization, the N ortheast, was also the area that gave birth to Fundamentalism. As new opportunities to better oneself socially and financially arose so did new forms of egalitarianism. The needs of a developing industrial society called for the individualization of people through empowering them to make personal decisions about where they would live, marry and pray.Within the cities many people began to explore new forms of spiritual expression, with substantial numbers of people returning to traditional branches of a Protestantism which was now exploring new theologies, such as premillenarianism, in response to anomic uncertainty. Fundamentalism attracted growing numbers of people in urban, rather than rural, settings through marginalization and alienation. â€Å"The growth of fundamentalist churches†¦was largely through conversion† of individuals within the city seeking the assurances offered by the theological assertions of the most radical Protestant sects.The position of the Bible as the inerrant word of God had come under considerable pressure from science through the application of historical critical methodologies, as well as other from other disciplines that were investigating the Bible from new intellectual perspectives, and so had conceded it’s role of containing an ultimate truth. While nominally this would affect all Christianity’s, including Roman Catholicism, the Protestant principle of Sola Scriptura, the individual ability to interpret the word of God without an intermediary, left them particularly venerable to the accelerated pace of scientific progress.While many liberal Protestant theologians were willing to concede to â€Å"lower criticism†, or the critique of the human authorship of the Bible, Fundamentalists could not equivocate when a literal interpretation informed their very world-view, and their relationship to society and culture. It was not any particular movement in science, be it â€Å"hard† empiricism of Darwin or the â€Å"soft† theorizing of the Humanities, that ultimately upset the Fundamentalists as much as the aggregate of suspicion that now hung over the entire Christian project.Religion was â€Å"challenged less by specific scientific discoveries than by the underlying logic of science (indeed, rationality)† which had come full circle with the technological ability that had allowed America to enter into a world war as a super power. The social power to drive the new century was drawn from scientific rationalism, and not, as it had been in the past, from reliance upon the sacred. Fundamentalism was at war with modernity, and wished to reassert the old certainties in an age that had embraced their decline in favor of immediate temporal ability.Protestant Fundamentalism arose as a response to modernity during the late 19th and early 20th century. Faced with a number of challenges on different fronts it developed a theological foundation that marked it off as a dist inct religious phenomenon. Born of the schisms inherent in Protestantism since the reformation, it attracted adherents through a militant defense of traditional religious values that were increasingly undermined as progress in science questioned the Biblical narrative.Dispensationalism, and premillenarianism, in addition to a principle off separatism from liberal Protestant evangelicals, combined to give this new group a powerful voice in American religious life. At their height the fundamentalists were able to successfully challenge the American establishment through a highly publicized court trial that pitted modernity’s champions against religion’s staunchest defenders. At the same time their political influence was such that their dream of public moral regeneration through the wholesale ban on alcohol consumption demonstrated their ability to mount effective campaigns, and win.These victories turned out to be Fundamentalism’s undoing, at least where the gene ral public was concerned, as the publicity generated by the Fundamentalists engendered public ridicule and resentment towards this new group. American society had changed radically from the victorian religious society, based on the principles that had once been clearly understood through a thorough individual grounding in the Bible, to a society that was increasingly materialistic, secular and diverse. As the Fundamentalists withdrew to regroup, and quietly build their power base through their own separate nstitutions, they would later reemerge to continue their challenge to modernity within American society. Bibliography Bruce, S. , Fundamentalism (2nd Ed. ), UK: Polity Press, 2008 Bruce, S. , â€Å"The Moral Majority: the Politics of Fundamentalism in Secular Society† in Studies in Religious Fundamentalism (ed. Lionel Caplan), London: Macmillan Press, 1987 Carpenter, J. A. , Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997 Hudson, W. S. , Religion in America (3rd Ed. )), New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1981 Lawrence, B. B. Defenders Of God: The Fundamentalist Revolt Against the Modern Age, USA: University of South Carolina Press, 1989 Marsden G. M. , Encyclopedia of Religion (ed. Lindsay Jones), Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005 Marsden G. M. , Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980 Marty, M. E. , and Appleby, R. S. , Fundamentalisms Observed (The Fundamentalism Project, Vol. 1), Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1991 ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Carpenter, J.A. , 1997, Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 5 [ 2 ]. Marsden G. M. , 2005, Encyclopedia of Religion (ed. Lindsay Jones), Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, p. 2887 [ 3 ]. Marsden G. M. , 1980, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 159 [ 4 ]. Marsden, Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 2887 [ 5 ]. Bruce, S. , 2008, Fundamentalism (2nd Ed. ), UK: Polity Press, p. 12 [ 6 ]. Carpenter, Revive Us Again, p. 6 [ 7 ]. Lawrence, B. B. 1989, Defenders Of God: The Fundamentalist Revolt Against the Modern Age, USA: University of South Carolina Press, p. 162 [ 8 ]. Bruce, Fundamentalism, p. 70 [ 9 ]. Marsden, Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 2889 [ 10 ]. ibid, p. 2890 [ 11 ]. Carpenter, Revive Us Again, p. 5 [ 12 ]. Bruce, Fundamentalism, p. 69 [ 13 ]. Marsden, Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 2889 [ 14 ]. Lawrence, Defenders of God, p. 166 [ 15 ]. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, p. 204 [ 16 ]. Bruce, Fundamentalism, p. 20 [ 17 ]. ibid, p. 17 [ 18 ]. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, p. 202 [ 19 ]. Bruce, Fun damentalism, p. 24

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Who Can Write My Essay for Money

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Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Accounting Sustainability and Reporting.

Sustainability refers to striking out a balance between present needs and the future needs and accordingly making out a decision for consumption of the resources. In the context of development or consumption of resources, the sustainability means consuming resources responsibly by taking the future needs into consideration (Schaltegger, Bennett, & Burritt, 2006). The business organizations consume scarce environmental resource, few of which are difficult to be restored. Therefore, these organizations should assume a sense of responsibility to use the scarce environmental resources in an effective and efficient manner. The regulators around the world are now being actively engaged in framing the rules and regulations to achieve sustainability in the developments. Major steps at the global level are being taken to enhance the sustainable business developments. In this regard, one of the major steps taken by the regulators is compelling the business organizations to adopt sustainability accounting and reporting practices (Schaltegger, Bennett, & Burritt, 2006). Sustainability accounting and reporting practices are directed to report the steps taken by the companies towards sustainability issues. The companies have been mandated by the government regulations to contribute towards the environment and society for promoting sustainability (Brockett & Rezaee, 2012). The concept of corporate social responsibility emerged which requires the companies to contribute towards the development of society and the environment. The sustainability accounting is a broad concept that provide for aligning the sustainability initiatives with the organizational strategies. Sustainability accounting not only involves reporting on the sustainability initiatives, but it also involves evaluation of the risks and threats to the environment and measurement of the company’s performance from environmental perspective. The issues of sustainability are being considered at the international level requiring the firms to adopt these practices. The adoption of sustaina ble business practices is considered beneficial not for a firm only but for the overall economic environment at the global level (Brockett & Rezaee, 2012). The report presented here is aimed at exploring the significance of sustainability accounting and reporting practices in the overall economic development of a country. In order to achieve this aim, the report will address the following objectives: This research report covers a comprehensive literature review to gather the views of existing literatures on sustainability accounting and reporting. Further, the report takes on data analysis on the subject matter of the research to find out actual impact on the corporations and economy. In this regard, the report precisely describes the methodology used to collect and analyze the data. Further, a discussion taking the view of existing literatures and the findings of the data analysis has been carried out followed by a concise conclusion being drawn.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The literature review section of the entire research report is very crucial. In this section, the researcher gets the knowledge of existing literatures on the subject matter of research, which is necessary to understand the foundation of the research (Jesson, 2011). Further, the review of literature also boosts up the confidence of the researcher by providing a strong foundation for data collection and analysis. The current research focuses on sustainability accounting and reporting, thus, the review of existing literatures focuses around this topic. In order to carry out the review of literatures appropriately, the entire subject matter has been bifurcated into different heads as discussed below. According to Soderstrom (2013), traditionally, the accounting and reporting practices in the firms could be found to be focusing on communicating the financial information and operational data to the stakeholders. However, the process of accounting and reporting has undergone a severe change to include the reporting on the sustainability issues. Over the last two decades, a drastic change in the approaches of reporting to the stakeholders has been witnessed (Soderstrom, 2013). The government regulations made it compulsory for the corporations to report on the corporate sustainability in their annual reports. The origin of sustainability reporting can be traced in way back 1960s and 1970s; however, the popularity was very less. As per the survey conducted by one of the world’s largest accounting firms, â€Å"Earns & Young†, only 1% of the 500 fortune companies were found to be reporting on the social and environmental sustainability in the mid 1970s in the United States (Soderstrom, 2013). According to Zu (2008), in the mid 1990s, triple bottom line reporting was introduced to promote sustainability (Zu, 2008). The triple bottom line model of reporting was primarily aimed at balancing the three crucial aspects of the business such as society, environment, and profitability. This model provided that the business should not only concentrate on the profits, but equal emphasis should also be given to the social and environmental aspects. Further, the triple bottom line reporting model also claims that the profitability of the company automatically increases when proper balance between the needs of shareholders, society, and the environment is maintained. This model greatly emphasized the role of society and environment in building the firm’s business and enhancing the firm’s value in the long run (Zu, 2008). Further, in the year 1997, the Global Reporting Initiative, a non-profit organization was founded, which provided for guidelines in regard to sustainability accounting and reporting by the firms (GRI, 2008). It was the increased need for sustainability that laid the establishment of Global Reporting Initiative in the last 1990s. According to Gupta & Mason (2014), the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) provides reporting frameworks which assist the corporations in complying with the legal reporting requirements in regard to sustainability. Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) has issued G3 guidelines which cover three core areas of sustainability such as economic, social, and environment. Gupta & Mason (2014), further state that reporting under the G3 guidelines helps the corporations enhance transparency and goodwill in the market which ultimately affects the worth of the company positively (Gupta & Mason, 2014).  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Daizy & Das (2014), Sustainability reporting has become part of the strategic decision making in the firms. Both, management as well as other stakeholders such as shareholders, society, and the government are benefited in some or other way by the sustainability reporting practices. The primary reason for sustainability reporting is to ensure that the efforts made by the corporations towards sustainability are measured and communicated to the stakeholders (Daizy & Das, 2014). Further, in the views of Daizy & Das (2014), the companies can improve their operational efficiency and ensure growth in the shareholder’s value in the long run by implementing and maintaining the sustainability reporting practices. Thus, apart from being a regulatory requirement, the sustainability reporting is also crucial for the long term growth (Daizy & Das, 2014). Further, sustainability reporting assists the management in analyzing the non financial factors and finding out impact of those factors on the firm’s profitability. In the present scenario, it has been really pertinent to measure and evaluate the impact of non financial factors such as society and environment on the financial performance of the firm (Daizy & Das, 2014). It is compulsory for the firms to continually contribute towards the social and environmental sustainability and assess its impact on the firm’s financial performance. This assessment can be carried out with the help of structured data which is prepared through the sustainability accounting and reporting practices. Therefore, sustainability accounting and reporting plays a crucial role in analysis and decision making, whether it is being done by the management for internal purposes or by the shareholders (Daizy & Das, 2014).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The sustainability reporting has become part and parcel of financial reporting for most of the corporations in the 21 st century (CPA, 2013). The adoption of sustainability reporting has been promoted not only because regulators made is obligatory, but more due to its enduring advantages. The sustainability reporting provides benefits to all type of companies and in particular the large corporations are benefited in the form of enhanced shareholder’s confidence, improved goodwill in the market, and improved operational efficiency. Further, there are many other indirect advantages of adopting the sustainability reporting practices, for example, savings in resource consumption, cost reduction, waste reduction, and improved relationship with regulatory bodies (CPA, 2013).   As per Faisal, Tower, & Rusmin (2012), about 250 companies from all over the world have adopted the corporate sustainability reporting practices and providing a separate report on the social and environmental initiatives (Faisal, Tower, & Rusmin, 2012). The large corporations and particularly the companies listed on the stock exchanges are being more complaint in regard to sustainability reporting than the smaller companies. The authors further state that though the sustainability reporting is increasing at the global level, but it is still imbalanced. It is perceived that the adoption of sustainability reporting adds additional burden on the smaller firms and thus, it has not been made obligatory for them in most of the countries. However, the bigger firms (listed companies) are quite capable to bear that additional burden and also the fact that these firms consume the environmental and economic resources at the large scale and affect the bigger part of the society, leads to making the adoption of sustainability reporting practices compulsory for them (Faisal, Tower, & Rusmin, 2012). Though adoption of sustainability reporting practices is advantageous for the firms but at the same it is challenging also. According to Faisal, Tower, & Rusmin (2012), the first key challenge in implanting the sustainability reporting effectively is identification of the needs of target audience. The sustainability reports are prepared to provide information on the approach followed by the company towards the social and environmental issues. The key challenge is to decide a standard format so that the information is communicated to the target audience in the best manner. However, challenges in this area are to some extent lessened by the guidelines provided by GRI. Further, the firms also struggle in measuring and evaluating the impact of its activities on the society and the environment precisely. It is quite a subjective matter to measure and evaluate the impact of firm’s activities on the social lives and the environment Faisal, Tower, & Rusmin (2012). Despite these challenges, the firms are adopting the sustainability reporting practices all over the world. According to OECD (2008), 120 companies out of total 500 have adopted the sustainability reporting and these numbers are expected to increase further in future. However, the popularity of sustainability reporting is increasing rapidly in Australia, but comparing it at the global level, it seems that improvements are still needed (OECD, 2008). There is a need to make strong efforts by the regulators, government, and the corporations to make sustainability reporting widespread in the country. The regulator has to consider that making the sustainability reporting obligatory for only listed companies would not be enough. The small and medium sized firms should also be encouraged to come forward and adopt the best sustainability reporting practices (OECD, 2008).  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Vasile et al. (2016), the sustainability reporting fixes responsibility on the companies to make legitimate efforts towards development of society, environment, and the overall economy. There are various aspects which could be put into discussion to assess the impact of sustainability reporting on the economy. These aspects are improvement in living standards of the people, savings in the consumption of scarce natural resources, and improvement in firm’s long term profitability. Vasile et al. (2016), further state that development of the society and environment are the elements of economy development, thus, if the efforts are made to improve the society or the environment, the economy will automatically be affected positively (Vasile et al., 2016). According to Higgins (2013), the sustainability and economic development are interdependent on each other. The gross domestic product indicates economic growth. If a country chases high growth in the GDP, it would require increasing the production quantities at a large scale (Higgins, 2013). The increase in production of goods would entail consumption of resources at the large scale. The consumption of resources at a rapid pace is dangerous for the sustainability. Therefore, the need to strike out a balance between the desired economic growth and the consumption of resources in a sustainable manner is essential. Further states that balancing the current economic growth and the consumption of the resources is crucial for long run survival of the economy (Higgins, 2013).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The reporting on sustainability issues has raised awareness in the business firms to save wastage of resources. The reduction in wastage of resources enhances the profitability of the firms which in turn increases the economic growth positively (Higgins, 2013). Further, as part of the sustainability efforts, the business firms are also contributing significantly for improving the societies. The contribution of the firms in this direction is critical to rise up the living standard of the people. Further, the improvement in the living standard is crucial for the overall economic growth. Thus, it could be said that the sustainability efforts made by the firms are essential for the overall improvement in the economic conditions of not only a country but at the global level (Higgins, 2013). In the views of Daly (2014), the economic development in the sustainable manner could be slow but it will be study and long last. The sustainability gives an impression that the resources are not to be used heedlessly (Daly, 2014). The firms are required to keep the needs of future in mind while consuming environmental resources. The consideration of future needs leads to consumption of the resources in a responsible manner which might lead to slow growth. However, the growth may be slow but it would be study. Consuming resources in this manner, the firm will be able to sustain its business for longer term which would ultimately affect its value positively (Daly, 2014).     Ã‚   The views of authors on sustainability accounting and reporting have been analyzed in this section. The literatures were reviewed with the objective of finding out the impact of sustainability accounting and reporting practices on the overall economic development of a country. In this regard, many authors provided their views on the reasons for evolution of the sustainability accounting and reporting practices. Some of the authors stated that it has become a mandatory requirement and few of them stated that sustainability accounting and reporting practices affects the value of the firm positively in the long run. Further, review of literatures reveal that though the adoption of sustainability reporting benefits the firm but it is quite a challenging task. However, the implantation of sustainability reporting could be vital for the overall economic development sustainability.  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   A systematic approach is adopted in conducting a research which involves application of appropriate methodology to collect the required data and apply the data analysis tools. The tools and techniques applied in the research for data collection could be scientific requiring application of principles of statics (Olsen, 2011). The selection of appropriate data collection methods and the analytical tools is critical for completing the research in an effective manner. There are two main categories of data collection methods such as primary and secondary. The primary data collection methods comprises of the methods such as survey and interview. Further, the secondary data collection methods comprises of the methods such as review of the documents and observations (Olsen, 2011). It has been observed that the secondary data collection methods are suited the best in the case of qualitative researches. The research carried out in this report aims at exploring the impact of accounting sustainability and reporting practices on the overall economic development (Lapan, Quartaroli, & Riemer, 2011). The research is qualitative in nature, thus, the secondary data collection methods have been applied. For the purpose of this research, the data has been collected through study of books, journal, reports of regulatory authorities and the government. In this regard, it has been ensured that the data collected is latest; therefore, the books, journals, and the reports of the regulatory authorities of the latest years have been referred for data collection (Lapan, Quartaroli, & Riemer, 2011). The data collection was organized in three categories such as reasons for adoption of sustainability accounting and reporting by the firms, impact on the firm’s value of sustainability reporting, and its impact on the overall economy (Lapan, Quartaroli, & Riemer, 2011). The data collected in regard to reasons for adoption of sustainability reporting practices relates to identification of the key drivers of sustainability. Further, the data collected in regard to impact on the firm’s value covers the profitability and net worth of the firm’s before and after the adoption of sustainability reporting. Further, in regard to evaluation of impact on the overall economy, the data relates to macro economic factors such as gross domestic product, standard of living, poverty levels, and reductions in the carbon emissions (Lapan, Quartaroli, & Riemer, 2011).     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The data collection process has been carried out ethically and in an effective manner so that all the required information could be gathered. There certain limitations of the secondary data, which are required to be made explicit so as to assist the readers in drawing conclusions (Ary et al., 2013). The secondary data is prone to the risk of inappropriateness and there exists lack of control on preparation of the secondary data. Thus, effectiveness of the research carried out based on the secondary data depends upon the accuracy of the data. Further, the ethical concerns in regard to the use of secondary have been adhered to carefully. Proper referencing and citations have been given in the report wherever considered necessary to give credit to the authors whose data is used (Ary et al., 2013).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The research report presented here has main goal of finding out the impact of sustainability reporting on the economy of a country. In order to achieve this goal, it has been considered pertinent to find out the reasons for adoption of the sustainability reporting practices. The sustainability reporting provides value addition to the firm in various ways .There are countless parameters which can be used to assess the value added by sustainability reporting as shown in the figure given below: Figure 1: Value Added by Sustainability Reporting (EY, 2013) From the figure show above, it could be observed that there are various areas which are positively affected by adoption of sustainability reporting practices. It could be observed that more than 40% of the total surveyed companies consider that improved reputation is the major factor which drives the adoption of sustainability reporting practices (EY, 2013). The adoption of sustainability reporting practices enhances the confidence of investors and consumers which helps in building reputation in the market. Further, there were more than 35% companies which claimed that sustainability reporting is crucial in increasing the employee loyalty. Employee’s loyalty is very important for the firms to achieve the targets on time and succeed in the market. Further, few companies also found increase in the consumer loyalty due to adoption of the sustainability reporting (EY, 2013). Further, the sustainability reporting also helped the firms to make their strategies stronger in terms of long run business and refine their visions. Further, there were observed around 25% companies which claimed that achieving reduction in wastage of the natural resources was one of the primary reasons for promotion of sustainability reporting (EY, 2013). The other commonly accepted factors which laid the adoption of sustainability reporting were improved relationship with the regulatory bodies, reduced long term risk, enhanced long term profitability (EY, 2013). Due the above discussed factors, the sustainability reporting has been adopted by various firms world-wide. The following chart shows the growth in sustainability reporting adoption from to year 2000 to 2011: Figure 2: Growth in Sustainability Reporting (EY, 2013) From the chart presented above, it could be observed that there has been a complete transformation since the year 2008. The increase in the number of companies adopting sustainability reporting practices has been enormous from the year 2008 to 2011. Within a period of 3-4 years, the number of companies complying with the sustainability reporting guidelines (issued by GRI) has increased to a significant level (EY, 2013). Further, data has been collected and analyzed to find out the impact of sustainability reporting on the firm’s profitability and its value. The firms perceive that consuming resources optimally keeping the future needs in mind will help them build better tomorrow. Further, the reduction in cost and risk and increase in reputation and quality are expected to lead the firm on the path of high profitability in the long run. The implementation of the sustainability accounting and reporting practices increases the legal compliances and it also put additional burden on the firm in terms of new manpower. Further, the benefits of sustainability reporting accrue over the years in the long run. Therefore, in the short run, the impact on profitability of the firm employing sustainability reporting practices may be adverse, but it would be positive in the long run.  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The data analysis conducted NWOBU (2015) reveals that there exists a positive correlation between the profit after tax and sustainability reporting index. The profit after tax depicts profitability of the company while the score on sustainability index indicates the compliance level of the firm with sustainability reporting requirements. Thus, a positive correlation between profit after tax and sustainability index is the indicative of the fact that with the increased compliance of sustainability reporting, the firm’s experience increase in their profitability. The research of NWOBU (2015) reveals that correlation between profit after tax and the sustainability index is 0.281, which is low positive correlation. The correlation of 0.281 implies that increase in sustainability index would entail increase in the profit after tax, but the increase in profitability might at the low rate (NWOBU, 2015). Further, the correlation between shareholder’s fund and sustainability index was also analyzed. The correlation between these two factors was found to be 0.183, which can again be categorized as positive and low (NWOBU, 2015). Thus, the interpretation would remain as it was before in case of profit after tax. Therefore, the increase in sustainability index would entail increase in the shareholder’s fund. It is to be noted that the shareholder’s fund represents the value of a firm. Thus, it could be articulated that with the increase in sustainability index, the value of the firm increases. However, the increase might be at very slow rate (NWOBU, 2015). After analyzing the impact of sustainability reporting on the firm’s profitability and its value, it is essential to observe the changes in the macro economic factors due to adoption of sustainability reporting practices (Talberth, 2010). In this regard, it is considered crucial to analyze the gross domestic product, standards living of the people, and poverty level. It is argued that sustainable business practices may cause reduction in the overall gross domestic product of the country. The reduction in GDP may be caused due to reduction the production level caused by decrease in the consumption of the environmental resources. For example, if the mining companies decrease the exploration of minerals, the production level of commodities will go down affecting the gross domestic product adversely. However, due to recent shift in the economic and environmental conditions, the gross domestic product is no longer considered to be reliable measure of well being of an economy. The p erformance on sustainability indices is taking place of gross domestic product now a day (Talberth, 2010). Further, the improvement in the sustainability practices also implies contribution to the society at a large scale. The firms working in the economy make combined efforts to raise the living standard of the people. Further, with the rise in the living standard of the people, the poverty level automatically goes down. Therefore, it could be inferred that the improvements in the sustainability reporting enable the economy to stabilize and grow in a sustainable manner (Talberth, 2010).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The research carried out in this report addresses the crucial matter which relates to adoption of sustainability accounting and reporting practices by the firms operating in the economy. The aim of this research is to explore that whether the sustainability accounting and reporting is essential for the economy or not. In order to achieve the aim, the activities of the research are bounded by three objectives. The literature review has been carried out around these three objectives and the data analysis has also been conducted by keeping the three identified objectives in the centerfield. The articulation of the reviews of various authors reveals that promotion of sustainability accounting and reporting is really important for the well being of the overall economy (Daly, 2014). The authors state that there are various factors which make the firms to adopt the sustainability reporting. The improvement in the market reputation of the firm is one of the most crucial factors in that regard. The views of the authors reveal that firm’s reputation is improved to a great extent when it complies with the sustainability reporting guidelines. Further, the data analysis also supports this view of the authors. The analysis of data findings reveals that most of the companies consider the market reputation as one of the essential factor in adoption of the sustainability reporting practices (EY, 2013). Further, there have been identified few other factors as well such as customer loyalty, operational efficiency, and regulatory compliances. These factors also make the firm to comply with the sustainability accounting and reporting practices. In regard to the impact on firm’s financial performance, the authors state that the adoption of the sustainability reporting affects it positively in the long run. However, in the short run there may be adverse effect due to high compliance cost at the beginning. Further, the findings of the data analysis also support this view of the authors. The data analysis depicts that the sustainability reporting and the firm’s financial performance are positively correlated. This implies that the financial performance of the firms which comply with the sustainability reporting practices is found to be better than the firms not complying with it. Further, it has also been explored that the firm’s value (shareholder’s equity) is also affected positively by the adoption of sustainability reporting practices (EY, 2013). In regard to impact on the overall economy, the authors have stated that sustainability accounting and reporting is necessary to achieve economic development in a sustainable manner (Higgins, 2013). Further, the data gathered from the secondary sources also supports this view of the authors. The findings of the data analysis reveal that adoption of sustainability in the operations leads to contribution by the firms towards social and environmental causes. The firms contribute at the large scale to save the scarce environmental resources and to raise the living standard of the people. Further, the protection of the natural resources is very critical from the view point of sustainability.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The report presented here presents a research study on the sustainability accounting and reporting. The primary aim of the research is to explore the impact of sustainability accounting and reporting on the overall economy of a country. In this regard, it has been considered essential to find out the impact of sustainability reporting on a particular company and then on the overall economy. Based on the findings of the report, it can be concluded that the sustainability reporting is essential for the long term economic development. The articulations drawn from the literature review bring out the fact that sustainability reporting has become crucial for the firms to survive and thrive in the market. The recent developments in the areas of social and environmental sustainability are admirable. The regulators from all over the world are making collective efforts to make the business sustainable and futuristic. The survey report of EY discloses that there has been observed a significant increase in the number of firms adopting the sustainability reporting practices since the year 2008. From the findings of data analysis, it could be articulated that the increased awareness and the enduring advantages of sustainability is pushing the firms to opt for the best sustainability accounting and reporting practices. The major advantages of sustainability reporting have been identified as the improvements in the firm’s reputation, enhancement in the investor’s confidence, employee’s loyalty, and consumers trust. Further, the company is also able build a good rapport with the governmental regulatory authorities. However, there certain challenges which the firms have to while implementing the sustainability accounting and reporting practices. Among various such challenges, the high operating cost and administrative problems are the major ones. Though, there are challenges, but the benefits of sustainability accounting and reporting are enduring, therefore, the firms have to make effort to implement it. Further, it was observed that sustainability reporting is also essential to raise the standard of living of the society and the maintaining a proper balance between the present and future needs. From the findings of the research, it could be inferred that maintaining a proper balance is crucial for long term economic developments. The sustainability in operations not only improves the financial performance of the firm but it also enhances its value. Further, the overall economy is affected in a positive manner which is the center point of the sustainability accounting and reporting. Schaltegger, S., Bennett, M., & Burritt, R. 2006. Sustainability Accounting and Reporting. Springer Science & Business Media. Brockett, A. & Rezaee, Z. 2012. Corporate Sustainability: Integrating Performance and Reporting. John Wiley & Sons. Jesson, J. 2011. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. London: SAGE. Soderstrom, N. 2013. Sustainability reporting: past, present, and trends for the future. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from Zu, L. 2008. Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Restructuring and Firm's Performance: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Enterprises. Springer Science & Business Media. GRI. 2008. Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Report. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from Gupta, A. & Mason, M. 2014. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: Critical Perspectives. MIT Press. Daizy & Das, N. 2014. Sustainability reporting framework: comparative analysis of global reporting initiatives and Dow Jones sustainability index. International Journal of Science, Environment, 3(1), pp. 55-66. Faisal, F., Tower, G., & Rusmin, R. 2012. Legitimizing Corporate Sustainability Reporting Throughout the World. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 6(2), pp. 19-34. CPA. 2013. Sustainability Reporting: Practices, Performance, and Potential. Retrieved February 08, 2017, from OECD. 2008. OECD Environmental Performance Reviews OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Australia 2007. OECD Publishing. Vasile, J., Andrei, Nicolo, & Domenico. 2016. Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Investments in the Green Economy. IGI Global. Higgins, K.L. 2013. Economic growth and sustainability – are they mutually exclusive? Retrieved February 08, 2017, from Daly, H.E. 2014. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Beacon Press. Olsen, W. 2011. Data collection: key debates and methods in social research. SAGE. Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., Sorensen, C.K., and Walker, D. 2013. Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning. Lapan, S.D., Quartaroli, M.T. &Riemer, F.J. 2011. Qualitative Research: An Introduction to Methods and Designs. John Wiley & Sons. NWOBU, O. 2015. The Relationship between Corporate Sustainability Reporting and Profitability and Shareholders Fund in Nigerian Banks. The Journal of Accounting and Management, 5(3). Talberth, J. 2010. Measuring What Matters: GDP, Ecosystems and the Environment. Retrieved February 08, 2017, from

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Define the term middle class and discuss the factors that led to its Essay

Define the term middle class and discuss the factors that led to its growth in the early nineteenth century - Essay Example This was the emergence of the real middle class society in America. Over the periods, various factors have contributed to the development, sustenance and elimination of the middle class depending on the prevailing circumstances which has led to the ever changing definition of the members of the middle class group (Murrin, et al, 14). Apart from rewards for the war veterans, the key factor which led to the emergence and development of social class in America can be dated back to the effects of the agrarian revolution of the 18th century and the industrial revolution of the 19th century. During the agrarian revolution, people who could acquire some piece of land, apart from the colonizers, and were able to employ at least a few people on their land, managed to live more comfortable lives than the others and were therefore considered as the middle class (Temin, 36). In the industrial revolution, people who were employed to work as supervisors in the industries were capable of earning good pay to make them lead better lives thus becoming the middle. Today, the middle class is defined as those people capable of owning at least two cars and living comfortably but will struggle if they missed paycheck for two months. They are actually not