Monday, September 30, 2019
KAHITSAN (Sizzling Tapsihan) By: Camille Hazel Diaz To: Ms. Girlie L. Fernandez A thesis submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Marketing Management ABE International Business College-Fairview March 20, 2013 INTRODUCTION TapsilogÃ¢â¬ is an original dish of the Filipinos which became a favorite since it was first created. Ã¢â¬Å"TapÃ¢â¬ means tapa, Ã¢â¬Å"SiÃ¢â¬ means sinangag or fried rice and Ã¢â¬Å"LogÃ¢â¬ for itlog or egg. This kind of food is popular for Filipinos due to its tenderness and tastiness with the combination of fried rice and egg.Kahitsan is small eatery concept offering high quality yet affordable traditional Filipino food. It was originated from the word Ã¢â¬Å"Kahit SaanÃ¢â¬ , the word we used to hear every time we ask someone where they want to eat. This concept was build to let the people know that Kahit Saan also exist as a small eatery providing wide varieties of filipin o dishes. Kahitsan is located at the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue due to high density of colleges and universities found in the area.It serves a variety of mouth-watering Sizzling Silog Meals such as TapSiLog, ToSiLog, CornSiLog, SigSiLog, PorkSiLog, BurgerSiLog, HotSiLog, ChixSiLog, and LongSiLog with a combination of Bulalo Soup. The gravy made it even more delicious and serves it on a sizzling plate. We offered a delicious and affordable price that gives a satisfaction to our customer that they surely get what they paid off. THESIS STATEMENT Nowadays, people tend to eat outside due to busy days. Some students were not able to bring their own Ã¢â¬Å"baonÃ¢â¬ especially colleges. KahitSan provides services to valuable customers.Our main target market are students and other professionals who work near into our location. Kahitsan maintains product consistency to provide the customers the same high quality they received every time they go to our place. Our strategy is to bu ild more customers in order to increase revenue. Unlike other small eatery, kahitsan have separate take-out counter for those customers who prefer to eat at different place, this will also be an advantage because kahitsan will be able to receive additional income even the place were full of customers. We also provide loyalty cards for an effective way of increasing sales from a specific customer.This card will be showed when they order to us. Effectiveness of this card is due to the provided sense of and it additional value to customers gives the feeling of value. SALES TECHNIQUES KahitsanÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is based on delivering a strong customer value proposition in a niche market. Our location is full of colleges and professionals that do not have endless opportunities for dining out. Our competitive edge is to be the first eatery Ã¢â¬Å"tapsiloganÃ¢â¬ along Claro M. Recto Avenue, in a friendly, non-smoking, customer-oriented dine in experience and first to have its separate t akeout counter.To drive customers to Kahitsan, we will employ several techniques outlined below. * Coupon Ã¢â¬â coupon will be given to people who passed by our store to inform them about our menus. * Flyers will be used for the advertisements which bring in customers. * (Word of Mouth) Encourage customers to become regular customers, and to tell all their friends and acquaintances about the great experiences and time that they shared to us. * Facebook Fan Page is an essential tool to promote my business. * Barkada Meals good for 3 to 5 persons. SALES OPERATION/SERVICESKahitsan will be operating for 14 hours from 7am in the morning up to 9pm in the evening. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll be planning to open our store ahead from our competitors so early risers will tend to eat breakfast in our place. Our products will be served fast and ready to consume and will be an alternative to the usual fast-food options available in today's market. Kahitsan will not operate its business on Sundays to give ou r employees a rest. Checking of inventories on Sundays will be an advantage so we will know the food supplies we need to replenish for the whole 6 days operation. Take-out counter Ã¢â¬â Kahitsan will be providing a separate takeout counter for those customer who wants to buy our products and serves as Ã¢â¬Å" pasalubongÃ¢â¬ for their families, friends and colleague * 15 tables (good for 4 persons) Ã¢â¬â Kahitsan will be having 15 tables with a minimum of 4 chairs each table to suits those customers who came with their friends. It is better to provide a large no. of tables instead of a few which pushed the others to find another place instead of waiting others to finish eating. POS (Point of sale) system Ã¢â¬â All sales data will be logged on our POS system so we can track our sales automatically instead of just writing it on a paper. * Loyalty cards: After 10 meals purchased, the 11th will be less 50% discount. * Bulletin Kahitsan Ã¢â¬â kahitsan will be announcing som e promos to be posted in our bulletin. MENU: Tapsilog P40. 00 Chicksilog P45. 00 Hotsilog P40. 00 Sigsilog P45. 00 Barkada Meal P95 Silog MealsPriceDrinksPrice TosilogP40. 00 Coke 8ozP12. 00 Cornisilog P40. 00Coke 1L P30. 00 LongsilogP40. 00Mountain Dew P20. 00 Burgersilog P45. 0Mineral Water P12. 00 Porksilog P45. 00Water P0. 00 PROFIT SALES: per dayper month Tapsilog P40 x 30 = P1200 P32400 Longsilog P40 x 8 =P320 P8640 Hotsilog P40 x 7 =P280 P7560 Cornsilog P40 x 5 =P200 P5400 Tosilog P40 x 5 =P200 P5400 Chicksilog P45 x 20 =P900 P24300 Sigsilog P45 x 25 =P1125 P30275 Porksilog P45 x 10 =P450 P12150 Burgersilog P45 x 10 =P450 P12150 Barkada Meal P95 x 5 =P475 P12825 Extra Rice P8 x 80 =P640 P17280 Coke 8oz P12 x 10 =P120 P3240 Coke/Sprite 1L P30 x 5 =P150 P4050 Mountain Dew P20 x 3 =P60 P1620Mineral Water P12 X10 =P120 P3240 TOTAL GROSS SALES:P6690 P180630 EXPENSES: EquipmentsP25000 Rent ExpenseP12000 Salary ExpenseP25000 Food Supplies ExpenseP55000 Utilities ExpenseP4000 Miscell aneous ExpenseP10000 TOTAL:P121000 SALESP180630 Less:EXPENSESP121000 NET PROFIT:P59630 (monthly) CONCLUSION: KahitSan is strategically located at Claro M. Recto Avenue serving not only large no. of students but professionals as well. KahitSan will be providing a hassle free service to all our valued customer especially for those who finds place to eat and just relax for a little time.Our main goal is to gain more customers and retain those that patronize our service by giving them an excellent customer service. Responsible profit will fairly compensate and reward employees for their hard work, loyalty and commitment. Kahitsan will find different ways that will make our customers satisfied with our service. The market will definitely respond and grow quickly on the next 3 years and establish 2 store locations in different place. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. bplans. com/healthy_restaurant_business_plan http://www. entrepreneur. com. ph/board/index. php? action=search2 http://en. wikipedia . org/wiki/University_Belt
Sunday, September 29, 2019
All resources available at CWE is aimed at the capacity building of the students to comprehend the writing styles and thus enables them to produce comprehensive, perfect and original papers . These helping resources range from Grammar guides to software tutorials.Ã The first set of tutorials includes grammar guide and common English errors which help out students in developing a perfect style that is devoid of grammatical blemishes. The next set of tutorials is various instructions about developing and organizing case studies, outlines and annotated bibliographies and using APA citation style.Ã It also contains various prototypes that help students understand use these various types and patterns of writing. Next in the series are various tools and softwares that help students organizing their writing material. It includes Ã¢â¬Å"Citation GeneratorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Thesis Statement GeneratorÃ¢â¬ . The patterns and procedures about writing an essay is an important guide. In end the CWE offers various handy tutorials about various MS softwares that enable students to learn and use these softwares more effectively. For me, the two most important resources are the Grammar and Writing Guides and Essay Guidelines. CWE has devoted a complete website to Grammar guideline that manifests the importance of grammar in the writing process. I was never well-versed in grammar and this affected my writing style. This grammar mechanics helped me to a great extent to remove my flawed writing style and to develop a new technique with least grammatical errors. The tests helped me greatly to understand my present level and inculcated in me a spirit to improve my grammar and informal expression. Essay guide is the other available resource material that helped me to grasp various steps involved in producing a good essay written with a purpose and for an intended audience. I never had a habit of revising my written material but these guidelines compelled me to review my writings.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Reflection - Essay Example es not bring a deeper meaning on its own as she is not really interested in making the point but rather interested in creating a pattern out of a language this brought to LeonaÃ¢â¬â¢s failure of school time-sharing. MindyÃ¢â¬â¢s class time-sharing on the other hand, was successful as the teacher contributes in her story (Gee, 2014). LeonaÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher hindered her success as she did not give a hand in telling her story and always told her to sit down because the class could not get the meaning of the story. For example, she could not differentiate between doing and being. MindyÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher included dialogue school in time-sharing to get the meaning of MindyÃ¢â¬â¢s story hence making the story interesting (Gee, 2014). The interaction between Mindy and her teacher is an important type of communication between younger children and their parents. For instance, the teacher waits until Mindy pauses and she retaliates and explains to Mandy how to talk. Use of dialogue in Mind yÃ¢â¬â¢s story reduces explicit language as the teacher gives the key points in the story (Gee,
Friday, September 27, 2019
Corporate Social Responsibility is Fundamental to Developing a Global Reputation - Essay Example The company can build sustainable operations by investing in corporate social responsibility. Therefore investing in corporate social responsibility is fundamental to developing a global reputation. This is demonstrated by multinational corporations such as Johnson & Johnson and Starbucks. They have invested in different programmes of corporate social responsibility and thus have been able to face the recent financial crisis more effectively than competitors. The objective of developing a global reputation cannot be attained unless the multinational corporation is able to offer products and services which promote social and environmental standards. By enforcing social and environmental standards, a multinational corporation invests in corporate social responsibility which leads to a global reputation. Introduction Globalization leads to increased international trade through the reduction of tariffs. Increased international trade creates global companies which can be defined as those companies which possess production/marketing operations in more than one country. One of the key success factors for global companies is corporate social responsibility, defined as taking into account the impacts of business operations on the society and the environment in addition to the traditional measurement of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. This creates an operational framework in which global companies have to take local concerns into consideration. By conducting operations in a manner which takes into consideration their social and environmental impacts, a global company is able to build a good reputation globally. The objective of this paper is to explore how corporate social responsibility enables a multinational corporation to develop a global reputation. Analysis of key issues Globalization increases the volume of international trade by reducing the national barriers to trade such as tariffs and subsidies. This leads to the creation of a multinational corporation which can conduct production and marketing operations in more than one international market. An example of globalization is ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into the World Trade Organization enabling western companies to set up operations in the fast growing Chinese economy. However the Chinese market is still regulated by the government and there is a considerable level of regional fragmentation in the government regulations. Therefore it is essential for foreign organizations to develop a good reputation in the Chinese market so as to create a good image in the local communities. This is one of the key success factors given the rising level of competitive rivalry as the Chinese market has been liberalized enabling foreign companies to set up their operations in the fast growing market. As a result companies need to develop programs of corporate social responsibility to develop a competitive advantage by developing a global reputation. Global companies can implement programs of corporate social respons ibility by taking into account the triple bottom line (McConnell & Brue, 2007). First the global company has to take into consideration the costs of managing people when it comes to transferring operations to a foreign market. This focus enables the management to conduct operations in a socially responsible manner so that employee satisfaction is maximized. Second, the company has to take into consideration the environmental costs of global operations. This means that the management takes into account the impact of its operations on the planet. Third, the company takes into account the traditional measurement of profits. Therefore the triple bottom line consists of people, planet and profit, also known as the three PÃ¢â¬â¢s. By conducting its global operations according to the triple bottom
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Irresponsible drinking - is it getting worse - Essay Example More than one fifth of women and one third of men consume more than the daily recommended alcohol levels (OCR 2011, p. 2). People are also more concerned about irresponsible drinking because young adults and children are beginning to drink at a much younger age than ever before. Statistics further indicate that out of every secondary school student, one drinks alcohol more than once a week. Even the government is concerned that the drinking rates, especially among minors, have reached worrying levels. Parents, friends, and licensed premises have been largely blamed for contributing to irresponsible drinking among children (OCR 2011, p. 2). One proposal that has been made to deal with irresponsible drinking entails appointing auditors to examine how the alcohol industry abides by the codes of practice that check on responsible retailing. Change of laws has also been proposed to force alcohol suppliers into line. Increasing taxes on alcohol prices so as to discourage irresponsible drinking has also been proposed. There have been campaigns about the dangers of abusing alcohol, aimed at discouraging irresponsible drinking (OCR 2011, p.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Business Appraisal in the Professional Services Sector - Dissertation Example The study made use of secondary data garnered mainly from official reports and pronouncements issued by the company for its shareholders, consumer groups, and the government. Other secondary data were acquired from investment analyses and professional publications, while the financial data were taken from official online databases. Quantitative analysis were conducted to establish relationships between research and development metrics and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability indicators, to determine which measures in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial reports relating to software development impacted upon how profitably the firm performance. Qualitative analysis provided an appreciation of the software development process and the value-enhancing strategies that improved MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s comparative advantage over its rival firms. The study found that the research and development efforts of Microsoft, which principally consists of software development, impacted on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profitabilit y within two years after the software development effort had taken place. Competitively, Microsoft had benefitted from a strategy of operational competence until the present, but Apple is gradually overtaking it with a more effective method of customer intimacy as its value discipline. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 List of Tables 5 List of Figures 6 Chapter 1: Introduction 7 1.1Chapter overview 7 1.2 Background of the study 7 1.3 Significance of the study 9 1.4 Research aim and objectives 9 1.5Research questions 10 1.6 Brief description of the data and analysis 10 1.7 Conceptual framework 11 Chapter 2: Literature Review 14 2.1 Chapter overview 14 2.2 The conceptualization of the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"value of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s software developmentÃ¢â¬ 14 2.3 The organizational dynamics of software development 15 2.4 MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s software development strategy 17 2.5 Discerning the rationale in code development at Microsoft 20 2.6 Accounting treatment of software development costs 23 2.7 The Conceptual Framework: The Treacy & Wiersema Value Discipline Model 24 Chapter 3: Methodology 29 3.1 Chapter overview 29 3.2 Research strategy 29 3.3Description of variables used in the quantitative study 31 3.4 Statistical model and treatment used in the study 34 3.5Data collection method 35 3.6 Sampling method and size 36 3.7 Data analysis 36 3.8 Scope and Limitation 37 3.9 Ethical considerations 37 Chapter 4: Data and Discussion 39 4.1 Chapter Overview 39 4.2 MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Product Innovation and Momentum 39 4.3 Perceived implementation of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate strategy 41 4.4 Human resources management at Microsoft 43 4.5 Assessment of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s operating performance 44 4.6 Competitive values dimension comparison among Microsoft, Apple and Google 49 4.7 Results of statistical correlation studies 54 Chapter 5: Conclusion 62 5.1 Chapter overview 62 5.2 Summary of the research findings 62 5.3 Conclusion 67 5.4 Limitation of the findings and conc lusion 68 References: 70 Appendices 74 List of Tables Table 1: Examples of incumbent and entrant software products 18 Table 2: Criteria to measure the disruptive potential of an innovation in software markets 19 Table 3: Comparison of Ã¢â¬Å"WaterfallÃ¢â¬ and Microsoft development processes 20 Table 4: Revenues and income per business segment 44 Table 5: Growth rates of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s yearend revenues and operating income for 2011 46 Table 6: Direct competitor comparison 47 Table
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Stakeholders - Assignment Example The success of the company has been made possible through the active participation of the stakeholders. The academic paper analyzes ten significant stakeholders of the company. The significance of the stakeholders is as explained below. 2. The guests are the main business stakeholders. The company invests a lot of resources for product marketing, so as to attract the attention of the global customer base. High customer numbers translates to high sales revenue. 3. The owner is another significant stakeholder. The owner is the chairman of the board of directors. He provides overall direction to the company, and formulates strategies that will ensure achievement of mission and vision. 6. The resort adheres to conditions set by the regulating officials. The federal and state agencies in the hotel and tourism sector are responsible for setting regulations, which all industry players must adhere to. 7. The hotel industry trade unions are stakeholder. All employees have the rights of joining a trade union of their choice. The trade unions enhance their welfare by jointly improving working conditions with the management. 8. The state department is responsible for providing the infrastructure and regulation necessary for the hotel, tourism and hospitality industry. Security infrastructure is provided by the department, in addition to transport and communication infrastructure. The stakeholder analysis illustrates that the employees are the most important stakeholders for the business. This is illustrated through the relatively high rating of 17%. The employees are significant because they are responsible for providing services to the customers effectively and efficiently. The employees are also responsible for customer retention, through providing services that meets and exceeds the expectations of the customers. Other important stakeholders at 17% are guests and the owner. The casino and the
Monday, September 23, 2019
HGPS Interface - Assignment Example Additionally, the system will find more appropriate routes to the destination of users, saving them a lot of money in the air pollution and in gasoline. The cars will therefore be safer in any condition of the weather. Business having larger outlet numbers like the utilities will manage the resources in an efficient manner thus reducing the cost of consumers. The Holographic Global Positioning System will offer the answers in facilitating all these concerns. The Holographic Global Positioning System will offer intelligent location of the vehicle and navigation information that will enable the users avoid freeway that is congested. Additionally, the system will find more appropriate routes to the destination of users, saving them a lot of money in the air pollution and in gasoline (Rabbany, 2002). The cars will therefore be safer in any condition of the weather. Business having larger outlet numbers like the utilities will manage the resources in an efficient manner thus reducing the cost of consumers. The Holographic Global Positioning System will offer the answers in facilitating all these concerns. A Holographic Global Positioning System is positioning systems for radios that will combine techniques of computer mapping in offering the three dimensional position, time information, and velocity it equip the user near the surface of the earth (Blaauw, 1976). The Holographic Positioning System is one of the major developments of wireless communication market (Prentzas, 2010). It is a crucial tool for surveying and map-making and has become one of the most important global utility that is cannot be dispensed for the modern navigation on land. The Holographic Global Positioning System is divided into three parts. The segment for users, control segment, and segment for space. The figure below shows the main components of Holographic Global Positioning System.The space has a space segment composing of GPS satellites that will
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Imperial Rome Essay More than a thousand years ago, most of the civilized world was ruled by Rome, and the Roman Empires reach extended over hundreds of countries and cultures. It was one of the greatest empires that ever existed in the world. Its influence reached as far as Britain, Persia, and even Africa. During the life of the Empire, great achievements were conjured and its mark was immortalized in the annals of history. The Roman Empire built the foundation by which western civilization (as we know it today) was created. It produced many great and influential people, and as a super power, it was the keeper of order and stability in the tumultuous, early days of Rome. Laws and government systems that were conceptualized and enacted during this time stands as the basis for modern forms of governance, particularly that of democracy. Numerous modern languages can trace their roots from its lingua franca. While now a dead and dormant language, Latin is the language on which many etymologies are based. The empire has also given us Christianity, a religion that has significantly shaped world history and interconnected a myriad of cultures. This paper delves into the historical pieces, people, and events that make up Rome as a great empire, their influence, and how they affected the fate of the Empire and its people. The Twelve Tables as the basis for Roman Law The Twelve Tables, also known as Lex Duodecim Tabularum, were drafted in the mid-fifth century BC as the set of governing laws for the Roman Republic in its early days. Those times where ridden with great political and social struggles, so the drafting of laws that addressed their issues was a necessity. The legislation stood as the very foundation of Roman law. The Romans legal attitude and the mos maiorum, which are unwritten societal norms, conduct, or cultural tradition, are based on this system. By modern standards, some of its provisions can be considered barbaric, but it was by its principles that all Western legislation was later founded on. Though Romans realized that philosophy was not one of their strongest attributes, they took pride in their system of governance and legislation. The Tables established the basic principle of the legal code. This law, then, was solely based on interpretation, and the Tables, providing a concise resolution, transformed the legal system. A complete account of the Tables did not survive to modern times. What we have now are quotations and excepts from the original. Many were culled from the works of writers such as Cicero and Aulus Gellius. The Roman Conquest in the Punic Wars The Carthaginians, hailing from Phoenicia, were called Ã¢â¬Å"PoeniÃ¢â¬ , thus the term Ã¢â¬Å"Punic. Ã¢â¬ The Punic Wars were a series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage during the second and third century BC. There were three wars, the first one starting out because of a disintegration of the parties formerly good alliance. Before any rift could form, Rome and Carthage originally signed a treaty against a common enemy, Epirus. Territorial tensions and broken agreements eventually led to the first Punic War. Even though both sides did not originally have conflicting interests, the war lasted more than 20 years. In their final battle, the Romans scored a decisive victory. This set the direction of conquest that the Roman Empire took over the course of its history. Republic vs. Empire At first, a republic system suited Rome as a small city; the constitution and government was suited for its values and social structure. This Republic shaped the laws and systems by which Rome emerged as the worlds capital. However, as their might and influence began to grow, the people preferred the rule of an Emperor instead to that of the Republic, and one of the main conflicts in the Republic was brought about by class differences. Wealth was not equally distributed, and this caused a great social unrest to the lower classes. Cicero: One of Romes Most Influential Figures Cicero, also known as Marcus Tullius Cicero, is considered as the greatest Latin orator. His prose is considered prolific and is widely read, most of which deal with politics. In the ancient world, he is considered an influential philosopher. He lived in the time when the Roman Empire was starting to crumble, and being an actor, he took part in many performances depicting the political events of that period. Constantine and the Rise of Christianity in the Byzantine Era Constantine, also known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Augustus (to his troops), is one of the greatest rulers of the increasingly growing Roman Empire. He is famous for founding Constantinople (also Byzantium) as Romes new capital. One of his most influential acts is the Edict of Milan, a decree that legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. This earned him the title as the Ã¢â¬Å"First Christian Emperor,Ã¢â¬ and is considered as one of the most significant factors that facilitated the spread of Christianity in the whole world. The the Greek-speaking, Constantinople-based Roman Empire is commonly referred to as the Byzantine Empire (also the Eastern Roman Empire). The Byzantine Era was characterized by the rise of Christianity as the common faith (as opposed to paganism). Aside from the growing religious transformation, the direction towards Hellenization, or a transformation towards a culturally and philosophically Greek-oriented society, was also underway. Spartacus and Slave Revolt There were several major slave revolts during the Roman times, the most notable of which was that of Spartacus in 73-71 BC. This was considered as the greatest of all slave revolts in the Empires history, but modern historians have not reached a consensus as to Spartacus reasons for leading it. Spartacus was trained as a gladiator, and some theorize that he despised battling in an arena for Roman entertainment, thus his rebellion. He led revolts all over Italy, the center of the uprising being in Campania, in southern Italy . Thousands of slaves escaped from their masters to join him in his plight, and it took a kings army to put a stop to this. The Barbarians and the Fall of the Empire Historians have attributed the fall of the Roman Empire to the Barbarians, which were either of Germanic or British origins. During the third century, the empire experienced a great economic and political crises. Germanic tribes sacked the Western Empire, which they were not prepared to withstand. The constant barbarian assaults, civil unrest, and rising costs of living contributed to the Empires inevitable demise. Bibliography Baker, G. P. (1930). Constantine the Great and the Christian Revolution 1930. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing. Cornell, T. (1995). The Beginnings of Rome: Italy from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (Circa 1,000 to 264 B. C. ). London: Routledge.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Ancient Egypt Essay Ancient Egypt was a civilization that emerged in eastern North Africa, and was centered along the banks of the lower part of the Nile River. Beginning around 3100 B. C. , this dynamic civilization would exist for over 3,000 years, only ending with its fall to the Roman Empire. Yet, during its existence, ancient Egypt developed a rich history, as well as a rich culture that greatly influenced the rest of the ancient world and the modern world. Ancient Egyptian culture encompassed many things, but the most important was the spiritual aspect. Ancient Egyptians had no separate word to describe what modern society now calls religion, mainly because their spirituality was an integral part of their life. Therefore, it was believed that Egypt was part of a Ã¢â¬Å"universal cosmic schemeÃ¢â¬ , and on Earth, it was the responsibility of the pharaoh to maintain stability within that cosmic scheme (19). Another aspect of this cosmic scheme was the multitude of gods that ancient Egyptians worshipped. All the gods were associated with either heavenly bodies or natural forces. However, two groups of gods came to have particular importance. They were the sun gods and the land gods, and considering the fact that nature played such a vital role in the survival of ancient Egypt, it makes perfect sense that these groups would take precedence over the rest of the gods. The sun god commanded the greatest respect and devotion of all the gods because it was the sun that served as the source of life. He also had the ability to take on different forms and names. Thus, he was worshiped in human form as Atum, and in half man-half falcon form as Re (19). Land gods included Osiris, Isis, and Horus, all of whom represented some particular aspect of nature, as well as aspects of the afterlife. Such was the case with Osiris, who represented resurrection and judgment of the dead. The next main aspect of ancient Egyptian culture was its architecture. As proven from the ruins that exist today, ancient Egyptian rulers built large-scale monuments to demonstrate their power and strength, both militarily and politically. Yet, of all the architecture that remains from this civilization, it is the pyramids that still evoke awe in all. Built during the Old Kingdom period, the pyramids were often part of a large complex that was dedicated to the dead. The complex would include not only the pyramid for the burial of the pharaoh, but also smaller pyramids for his family, and rectangular structures called mastabas for his noble officials. Within these pyramids, everything that one needed for the afterlife was there. This was done because it was believed by ancient Egyptians that humans had two bodies: a physical one and a spiritual one, called the ka. The items placed in the pyramid with the physically dead pharaoh were meant to his ka to live on in the afterlife as it had in its earthly life (20-21). Naturally, pyramids cannot be talked about without referring to the process of mummification, which can be considered to be part of the spiritual aspect of ancient Egyptian life. A 70-day long process, mummification involved emptying the dead body of its internal organs, of which the lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, and heart were placed into special jars to be buried alongside the body. The body was then covered in salt, to draw out all the water from the body. Once this was done, the body was then filled with spices and wrapped in layers of linen that had been soaked with resin. The final step was the placing of a mask over the head of the mummy, and then its burial. Through this process, the pharaoh, his family, and his officials were all preserved, with the ultimate goal being they would reunite again in the afterworld (21). The final main aspect of ancient Egyptian culture was its art and writing. Egyptian art was largely functional, often being commissioned by kings and nobles for use in the temples and tombs of Egypt. With regard to the temples, wall paintings and statues of the gods and the pharaohs were meant for spiritual purposes only, in that they played integral roles in the performance of various rituals done by the temple priests. With regard to the tombs, wall paintings and statues were meant to aid the deceased along into the afterworld, serving as a type of guide for the person (21). Egyptian art was also extremely formulaic, meaning artists and sculptors had to follow a strict set of rules regarding proportions for the form and presentation of their works. As a result, Egyptian art had a distinctive appearance that would span the entire existence of ancient Egyptian civilization. One particular characteristic was the technique implemented by artists and sculptors alike, in which profile, semi-profile, and frontal views of the human body were combined to represent the whole image of the body accurately (21). Egyptian writing emerged during the first two dynasties, but did not have a name until given one by the Greeks, who called it hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics, meaning Ã¢â¬Ëpriest carvingsÃ¢â¬â¢ or sacred writings, were signs that depicted objects. Eventually, they were simplified into two scripts to make them easier to write, but were never developed into an actual alphabet. Initially carved into stone tablets, but the more simplified versions were written on papyrus. As a result, most of the Egyptian literature that exists today is either on stone tablets or papyrus rolls (22) As previously stated, ancient Egyptian culture was quite unique and vibrant. It was also greatly influential, as various aspects of it were adopted by other civilizations. Ancient Egypt served as an early example of how great a culture and civilization could be, and those that followed after it would not have been as successful were it not for the existence of ancient Egypt. Source: Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. Belmont: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2006.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Look At A Critical Incident That Occurred In Practice Nursing Essay The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relates this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, so as to demonstrate an understanding of my views on the art and science of reflection and the issues surrounding reflective practice; that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident. Confidentiality will be maintained as required by the Nursing Midwifery Council Code (NMC, 2008). Ã There is a discussion appraising the concept of reflection both generally, and in my particular area of practice of urgent care. Reflection is part of reflective practice and is a skill that is developed. It can be seen as a way of adjusting to life as a qualified healthcare professional and enhancing the development of a professional identity (Atwal Jones, 2009). Reflection is defined as a process of reviewing an experience which involves description, analysis and evaluation to enhance learning in practice (Rolfe et al 2001).Ã This is supported by (Fleming, 2006), who described it as a process of reasoned thought. It enables the practitioner to critically assess self and their approach to practice. Reflective practice is advocated in healthcare as a learning process that encourages self-evaluation with subsequent professional development planning (Zuzelo, 2009). Reflective practice has been identified as one of the key ways in which we can learn from our experiences. Reflective practice can mean taking our experiences as an initial point for our learning and developing practice (Jasper, 2003). Many literatures have been written in the past that suggest the use of reflective assignments and journaling as tools to improve reflection and thinking skills in healthcare (Chapman et al, 2008). Reflective journals are an ideal way to be actively involved in learning (Millinkovic Field, 2005) and can be implemented to allow practitioners to record events and document their thoughts and actions on daily situations, and how this may affect their future practice (Williams Wessel, 2004). MODELS In order to provide a framework for methods, practices and processes for building knowledge from practice there are several models of reflection available. All can help to direct individual reflection. Some may be particularly useful for superficial problem solving, and other better when a deeper reflective process is required. Reflective models however are not meant to be used as a rigid set of questions to be answered but to give some structure and encourage making a record of the activity. Johns (2004) reflects on uncovering the knowledge behind the incident and the actions of others present. It is a good tool for thinking, exploring ideas, clarifying opinions and supports learning. Kolbs Learning Cycle (1984) is a cycle that reflects a process individuals, teams and organisations attend to; and understands their experiences and subsequently, modifies their behaviour. SchÃ ¶n (1987), however, identifies two types of reflection that can be applied in healthcare, Reflection-in-action and Reflection-on-action. Reflection-in-action can also be described as thinking whilst doing. Reflection-on-action involves revisiting experiences and further analysing them to improve skills and enhance to future practice. Atkins and Murphys model of reflection (1994) take this idea one step further and suggest that for reflection to make a real difference to practice we follow this with a commitment to action as a result. Terry Bortons (1970) 3 stem questions:Ã What?,Ã So What?Ã andÃ Now What?Ã were developed by John Driscoll in 1994, 2000 and 2007. Driscoll matched the 3 questions to the stages of anÃ experiential learning cycle, and added trigger questions that can be used to complete the cycle. Gibbs (1988) reflective cycle is fairly straightforward and encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what you would do if the situation arose again. CHOSEN MODEL The reflective model that I have chosen to use is Gibbs Reflective Cycle (1988) as a framework, because it focuses on different aspects of an experience and allows the learner to revisit the event fully. Gibbs (1988) will help me to explore the experience further, using a staged framework as guidance ad I feel that this is a simple model, which is well structured and easy to use at this early stage in my course. By contemplating it thus, I am able to appreciate it and guided to where future development work is required. Before the critical incident is examined it is important to look at what a critical incident is and why it is important to nursing practice. Girot (1997), cited in Maslin-Prothero, (1997) states that critical incidents are a means of exploring a certain situation in practice and recognising what has been learned from the situation. Benner (1984, cited by Kacperek, 1997) argues that nurses cannot increase or develop their knowledge to its full potential unless they examine their own practice. Context of incident In the scenario the patients name will be given as Xst. Ã Ã The consequences of my actions for the client will be explained and how they might have been improved, including what I learned from the experience. My feelings about the clinical skills used to manage the clients care will be established and my new understanding of the situation especially in relation to evidence based practice will be considered. Ã I will finally reflect on what actions I will take in order to ensure my continued professional development and learning. Ã Description Miss Xst is 55 year old woman who has a 10 year old daughter.Ã She suffers from psychiatric problems, lack of motivation and has difficulties in maintaining her personal hygiene and the cleanliness of her flat. She was one of my mentors clients to whom I had been assigned to coordinate and oversee her care. Mental health Nurses owe their patients a duty of care and are expected to offer a high standard of care based on current best practise, (NMC 2008). Ã Ã Miss Xst had been prescribed Risperidone Consta 37.5mg fortnightly, which is a moderate medication. Risperidone belongs to a group of medicines called antipsychotic, which are usually used to help treat people with schizophrenia and similar condition such as psychosis. Although her condition is acute, it is not extreme and the reason for this medication is to help Miss Xst to stabilise her thought so she is able to support herself in the community (Healey, 2006). Miss Xst did not like attending depot clinic and she missed three consecutive appointments. My mentor decided after the third non-attendance to raise the issue in the handover meeting where it was decided to see Miss Xst in the morning but when we arrived she was not there. We left a note for her to call the office. We did not hear from her and a further home visit was carried out to arrange for her next depot clinic appointment. I called a meeting of the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) who agreed that there would be a problem if the next injections were missed. The social worker who was part of the team said that she will arrange for a community support worker to help clean Miss Xsts flat on a weekly basis (Adams 2008). We waited for about an hour for Miss Xst to attend the clinic for her depot injection but she failed to attend. I then informed the Community Psychiatry Nurse (CPN) that Miss Xst had expressed negative feelings about her medication and thought she did not need them; she had claimed she was already feeling well and therefore wanted the medications to be discontinued. Ã At a subsequent meeting with the patient, she agreed a joint visit with the CPN and myself to re-assess her condition and consider if it was necessary to Ã Ã refer her case to the consultant (Barker, 2003). Ã I was given the opportunity to carry out the initial assessment, which showed that her behaviour was very unpredictable and very forgetful. Her inability to take her medication and to manage her personal hygiene clearly demonstrated that she was not well. The assessment tool I used was the Mental State Examination which helps determine the level of her insight into her illness and indeed I found out that she was in denial (Barker, 2004). I talked to Miss Xst about her non-concordance with her medication, but she persisted in saying she was well.Ã I reminded her that continuous use of the medication would benefit her mental health and protect her against relapse.Ã We agreed that she could discuss this with the doctor on her next outpatient appointment, with the option of reviewing or reducing her medication. I stressed the importance of her communicating any side effects or reservations she may have about the medication to doctor. She appeared to understand this and following the discussion, she finally complied with her depot injection. Even though the NMC (2008) maintains that nurses have a responsibility to empower patient in their care and to identify and minimise risk to patient. The principle of beneficence (to do well) must be balanced against no maleficence (doing no harm) (Beauchamp and Childress, 2001).Ã All these transactions were recorded in Miss Xsts care plan file and in computer. Good record keeping is an integral part of nursing and midwifery practice, and is essential to the provision of safe and effective care. It is not an optional extra to be fitted in if circumstances allow NMC (2009). Ã The consequences of my actions for the patient and her daughter were that she attended to her daughters needs and to her personal hygiene, and made regular fortnightly visits to the clinic. Her mental condition was improved, she was allowed to continue on her moderate medication and she did not have to be readmitted in the hospital. Feeling During the handover, I was nervous as I felt uncomfortable about giving feedback to the whole team. I was worried about making mistakes during my handover that could lead to inappropriate care being given to Miss Xst or could cause her Ã readmission to hospital. As a student nurse I felt I lacked the necessary experience to be passing information to a group of qualified staff members.Ã However, I dealt with the situation with outward calm and in a professional manner. I was very pleased that my mentor was available during the handover to offer me support and this increased my confidence. Evaluation What was good about the experience was that I was able to carry out the initial assessment and identify what caused Miss Xst failure to comply with the treatment regime.Ã From my assessment I documented the outcome and related what had happened to the MDT with minimal assistance. Accurate documentation of patients care and treatment should communicate to other members of the team in order to provide continuity of care (NMC, 2008).Ã The experience has improved my communication skills immensely, I felt supported throughout the handover by my mentor who was constantly involved when I missed out any information. Thomas et al, (1997) explains that supervision is an important development tool for all learners. The team were very supportive throughout the process as they took my information without doubt. Ã What was not good about the experience was the fact that my mentor had not informed me that I was going to handover the information; as a result I had not mentally prepared myself for it. Ã I also felt that I needed more time to observe other professionals in the team carrying out their handovers before I attempted to carry out mine.Ã During the original MDT meeting, I felt that we did not provide enough time to freely interact with Miss Xst to identify other psychosocial needs that could impact on her health. However, in any event, she was unable to fully engage because of her mental state. Turley (2000) suggests that nursing staff should include their interaction with the patient when recording assessment details, which can be used to provide evidence for future planning and delivery of care. Dougherty and Lister (2004) have suggested that healthcare professionals should use listening as part of assessing patient problems, needs and resources. Ã Ã Analysis The literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills is vast and extensive. Upon reading a small amount of the vast literature available, the student was able to analyse the incident, and look at how badly this situation was handled. I realised communication is the main key in the nursing profession as suggested by Long (1999) who states that interpersonal skills are a form of tool that is necessary for effective communication. I found it difficult to communicate with a patient because I did not understand her condition. It was also difficult for me not to take her behaviour to heart and show emotion at the time, it is clear that this is an area I need to build on for the future. However, Bulman Schutz (2008) argue that this is failure to educate and for us to learn from practice and develop thinking skills. I would agree with them, as I learn best from practical experience, and build on it to improve my skills. With this is mind, I am now going to focus on my weaknesses, in both theory and practice, and state how, when and why I plan to improve on these. Through effective communication I was able to convince Miss Xst of the need to take her medication. I was able to pass on the information to the MDT for continuity of care.Ã Ã Roger et al (2003) concluded that communication is an on-going process but can be a difficult process when dealing with mental health problems.Ã During the handover I was pleased that the MDT members were supportive and interested in what I was saying and they asked questions. Ã The patient had no recollection of what she had said to me and since the incident she has made these comments to other staff, which has put me at ease and made me realise that I had done nothing wrong. My mentor explained that a patient with Parkinsons can often behave like this as they develop dementia, which Noble (2007) also confirms. Since the incident I have read about Parkinsons and am now aware that the patients expressionless face Netdoctor (2008), also made her comments appear more confusing and aggressive. ConclusionÃ In conclusion, I have learnt that through effective communication, any problem can be solved regardless of the environment, circumstances or its complexity.Ã Therefore, nurses must ensure they are effective communicators.Ã I have identified the weaknesses that should be turned to strengths. I am now working on strengthening my assertiveness, confidence and communication skills. Participating in the care of Miss Xst, I have realised that a good background information and feedback about mental health problems before providing care to a clients can assist in accurate diagnosis and progress monitoring.Ã Ã A good relationship between client and staff nurse is therapeutic and help in building trust. Ã This can be achieved by a free communication that allows the client to express their feelings and concern without the fear of intimidation.Ã From the experience, I feel the knowledge I have acquired will aid me in future while in practice should such situation arise again. ACTION PLAN FOR MY LEARNING NEEDS So that I could identify my strengths and weaknesses in both theory and practice easily, I found that the use of a SWOT analysis provided a good framework to follow. I have then built on this by producing a development plan that focuses on my weaknesses and how, when and why I plan to improve on them. I will now begin to work on these, the main reason being of course, that I am determined to be a competent, professional nurse in the future. I am now more prepared for any future patients with this disease as I have researched it. I will take the time to talk to them, to make sure they are at ease with me, before providing any care. If they appear distressed I would get another member of staff to help me to reassure them. Learning Need Planned action to meet this learning need Target time to meet the learning need. To improve my knowledge about patients illnesses and the risks of relapse associated with not taking Medication. Read books about different illnesses and causes of relapse End of third year To identify and have good background information and feedback about patients mental health problems before providing care to them To read my patients notes. On- going To ensure a good rapport exist between my patient and I, in order to build up a therapeutic relationship with them and to gain their trust. I will have regular meeting with my client On-going Effective communication with the patients and other members of the multidisciplinary team A locating time to talk to patients and their relatives participating in the ward round. On-going skills to develop throughout the training. Being prepared Talking with senior members of staff On-going CONCLUSION I have clearly demonstrated that by using a reflective model as a guide I have been able to break down, make sense of, and learn from my experience during my placement. At the time of the incident I felt very inadequate It was also difficult for me not to take her behaviour to heart and show emotion at the time, it is clear that this is an area I need to build on for the future. According to Bulman Schutz (2008), nursing requires effective preparation so that we can care competently, with knowledge and professional skills being developed over a professional lifetime. One way this can be achieved is through what Schon (1987) refers to as technical rationality, where professionals are problem solvers that select technical means best suited to particular purposes. Problems are solved by applying theory and technique. REFERENCES Adams, L. (2008). Mental Health Nurses can Play a Role in Physical Health. Mental Health Today. October 2008 pp27 Barker, P. (2004). Assessment in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes Barker, P. Ã Ed (2003). Psychiatric and mental health nursing: The craft of caring Arnold, London Beauchamp, T. and Childress, J. (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (5thÃ Edition): Oxford UniversityÃ Press. Bolton, G. (2001) Reflective Practice. Writing and Professional Development. Paul Chapman Publishing Limited, London. Bulman, C. Schutz, S. (2008) An Introduction to Reflection. In: Bulman, C. Schutz, S. (ed.) Reflective Practice in Nursing, 4th edition. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp 6 8 Burns, T. Sinfield, S. (2008a) How to organise yourself for independent study. In: Essential Study Skills The Complete Guide to Success at University. 2nd edition. London, Sage Publications Ltd, p 64. Burns, T. Sinfield, S. (2008b) Going to University. In: Essential Study Skills The Complete Guide to Success at University. 2nd edition. London, Sage Publications Ltd, p 16. Dougherty, L. and Lister, S. (2004) Royal Marsden of clinical nursing procedures. 6th edition. London: Blackwell publishers.Ã Gamble, C and Brennan, G (2005) Working with serious mental illness: a manual for clinical practice. Oxford: Bailliere Tindall. Kenworthy et al (2003) Marrelli, T. M (2004) The Nurse Managers Survival Guide: Practical Answer to Everyday Problems, United States of America : Elsevier Nursing and Midwifery Council (2004) Code of Professional Conduct NMC: London. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) The Code Standards of conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2009) Record keeping: Guidance for nurses and midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.Ã Ã Rolfe,Ã G., Freshwater, D. Jasper, M (2001) Critical Reflection for Nursing and the Helping professor; a Users Guide. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Roger, B. Ellis, Bob Gates, Neil Kenworthy. (2003) Interpersonal Communication in Nursing: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, London, UK. Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. Basic books. Harper Collins, San Francisco Schon, D. (1987) Preparing Professionals for the Demands of Practice. Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, Jossey Bass, pp3 21. Thomas, B. Hardy, S. and Cutting, P. (1997) Mental health Nursing: Principles and Practice London: Mosby Turley, J.P.( 2000) toward and integrated view of health informatics. Information Technology in Nursing 12 (13).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Men in Bowler Hats and Women in Great Dresses The day was grey and heavy; snow, in great drifts, lined the brick way. The brick and concrete halls loomed in the horizon; the years of the past century seemed to descend upon me as a curtain. Men in bowler hats and women in great dresses seemed more appropriate than my khaki cargo pants or leather jacket. The brick became concrete; and, I walked the path down the hill, past the great elms, and into the Sackett building. Wandering up the stairs, down halls, and finally finding the appropriate room, I entered and greeted the ruckus of the Best BuddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ organizational meeting. For those unfamiliar with Best Buddies, it is an organization of committed students who champion the interests of men and women with intellectual disabilities. However, Best Buddies is a humble organization; the organization emphasizes personal relationships and bonds of friendship over great initiatives of policy or mass demonstrations. The students who serve recognize the significance of such efforts but wish to participate in a more direct long term response. Working in several volunteer organizations, Best Buddies and the challenges confronted by both buddies and students most clearly underscore, for me, the growing need to recognize the role of volunteer organizations. To affect lasting change, students who work with disadvantaged children and people with disability must create lasting bonds, perennial bonds. Big Brother and Big Sister, Best Buddies, and the United Way all recognize this need and ask volunteers to commit to the cause for at least a year. For children in broken homes and people with disabilities, you need to establish trust. Only from a basis of trust, can a volunteer understand,... ...ry contributions the problems of society. Allowing children and adults from broken homes or with disabilities the opportunity to live fruitful lives, in part, must result from committed organizations of citizens, dedicated to weathering the inevitable heartbreaks of hard lives. So to my classmates and fellow volunteers, I urge you to remain committed and increase the awareness of the need for long term service. We Americans must recognize the need for civil society and restore a place for it; otherwise, we sanction the continuance of the great sorrows of society. We abandon what hearts, time, and hands can do and relegate our responsibility to the limits of foundations and money. As I walked away in the snow and wind, a sense of continuity filled me. My classmates and I joined a long tradition, reaching back beyond men in bowler hats and women in great dresses.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Old Man and the Sea - A Fish Story Ã The book, The Old Man and the Sea, is about an old man named Santiago who struggles with a gigantic marlin fish. This is a story of his courage, heroism, and strength. In the book, Ernest Hemingway uses Santiago to explore the theme of man and his relations to animals. In this case it is Santiago's relationship to the different fish he catches, especially the giant Marlin fish. Santiago respected, cared, and thought of the fish as equals. The relationship with the fish is shown through many examples and explanations in the following paragraphs. Ã Ã Ã Santiago truly cared about the huge Marlin fish he caught and this was a part of his relationship with fish. He would talk to his fish and treat them with his utmost care. This is shown as the Santiago states, Ã¢â¬Å"I wish it was a dream and that I had never hooked him. I'm sorry about it, fish. It makes everything wrong Ã¢â¬ ¦ I shouldn't have gone out so far fishÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 110). Santiago is truly sorry that he had to go out so far into the water and catch the giant fish. Because he went out so far, the sharks ate the fish on the way back to the port. He did not want his fish to be ripped and eaten by Santiago's worst enemy,Ã the sharks. He wished it were only a dream so that the fish would not have to go through the pain. This example shows how mush he cared for the fish and how his relationship with the fish was affected by his feeling of caring. Ã Ã Santiago also deeply respects fish in general and this aspect of his relationship to the fish is clearly shown throughout the book. There are many instances where Santiago displays his respect for fish and one of them is stated, Ã¢â¬Å"the Old Man hit [the albacore fish] on the head for kindness and kicked him, his body shuddering, under the shade of the sternÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 39). This shows Santiago's respect and feelings for the albacore fish. Hitting the fish on the head and kicking the fish is a sign of respect. Another example of Santiago's respect for a fish is when he describes the fish, Ã¢â¬Å"never have I seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or more noble thing than you, brotherÃ¢â¬ (HemingwayÃ 92).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
1) How does the andon procedure work and what are its fundamental aspects? How much does it cost to stop the line? What are the benefits of stopping the line? The andon procedure is adopted by Toyota Motor Manufacturing to ensure quality of their products. It involves the pulling of the andon cord whenever production at a work station is unable to be completed within the cycle time, or whenever any problem is faced. Pulling the andon cord will alert the team leader to the station. If the problem can be corrected immediately, assembly is resumed by pulling the andon cord again. However, if the team leader is unable to solve the problem, the line is stopped. With this process, Toyota is able to manufacture quality products and prevent defective products from being transferred on to the next station. This is in line with ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s principle of jidoka where problems are instantly detected and production is stopped whenever a problem is detected. However, stopping the line will reduce the flow time of the car assembly and flow rate of the production. As more time is required to produce the cars, worker overtime costs will be incurred. According to the case, line stoppages caused a shortfall of 45 cars per shift. These cars could have been sold in the market instead. Thus, line stoppages caused lost revenue (opportunity cost) for these 45 cars. In analyzing the costs for stopping the line, we assume that hourly wage per team leader is set at a 6. 5% premium. We assume 769 team members are spread equally between the two shifts. We assume that each worker causes an average of 1 line stop per shift. The number of shortfalls in a shift is based on that in April 1992 i. e. 45 cars. The breakdown of costs incurred to stop the line is as follows: Hourly Wage per Team MemberHourly Wage per Team Leader (6. 5% premium)Overwage rate per Team MemberOvertime Wage Rate per Team Leader 1718. 10525. 527. 1575 Number of Shortfalls per Shift45 Number of Shifts2 Total Team Members769 No. of Team Members per Shift (769/2)384 Number of Team Leaders per Shift102 Number of Stops per Worker per Shift1 Number of Stops per Shift384 Overtime per Car (57s/3600)hrs0. 0158333 Total Overtime Cost per Shift ($)8950. 4713 Overtime Cost per Stop ($)23. 308519 Lost Revenue per Stop (0. 17 x 18,500 x 45)/384368. 5469 Tota Cost Incurred per Stop ($)391. 86 Benefits of stopping the line is to reduce wastage as defects are detected early and problems can be solved earlier before the defect is passed on to the next station. 2) What are the underlying causes of the problems facing Doug Friesen? The main problem faced is a decrease in run ratio, which measured the numbers of cars actually assemble d in proportion to the number of cars that could have been assembled with no line stoppages, from 95% to 85%. This drop also led to a shortfall of 45 cars per shift, which had to be made up with overtime. The underlying causes are as follow: Ã¢â¬ ¢The combination of seats, which resulted from by the variety of Toyota Camry, has increased the probability of defects or human error. Ã¢â¬ ¢Problems are not solved at the point where the defect is detected and the defective cars remained in the assembly line until they are moved to the Code 1 clinic area for further inspection and quality control. Solving problems at the end of the assembly line could be more difficult or require more time than at the spot where the problem was first detected. This is because the car at the end of the assembly line has already been completely assembled thus, making amendments to specific components could be more challenging. Ã¢â¬ ¢There is a long waiting time for the delivery of replacement seats from KFS to TMM. This led to an increase in inventory in the overflow parking area where the cars waited for KFSÃ¢â¬â¢ special delivery. 3) How, if at all, does the current routine for handling defective seats deviate from the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS)? The current routine deviates from the TPS principles of Jidoka and Just-in-Time (JIT) production. JIT Principle TPSCurrent Routine (deviation) Produces only what was needed, how much was needed, and only when it was needed. Any deviation from true production needs was condemned as waste. Defective cars remain in inventory and some have to wait for replacement seats to be delivered. Cars are not produced at maximum capacity. Thus, consumer demand is not met on time. Jidoka Principle TPSCurrent Routine (deviation) Make any production problems instantly self-evident and stop producing whenever the problem was detected. Insisted on building in quality in the production process and condemned any deviation from value-addition as waste. Does not follow the jidoka principle Ã¢â¬â instead of stopping production and waiting for the new seat to arrive then fixing the seat before production restarts, Toyota continues with production and only fixes the seats after production ends 4) As Doug Friesen, what would you do to address the seat problem? Where would you focus your attention and solution efforts? What options exist? What would you recommend? Why? There are several solutions to address the seat problem in the manufacturing process. These solutions are non-exclusive and could be implemented together. Solution 1: Decrease the error caused by variability in car seat styles. This can be done by investing in training staff so that they will be proficient in handling the variety of seat styles for respective cars and reduce the defect rate caused by human error. Another way is to assemble the cars in batches based on its respective seat styles as this method of production decreases the chance of human error as well since production will be more uniform. However, batching violates ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHeijunkaÃ¢â¬â¢ principle. Solution 2: Toyota could also consider the option of repairing the damaged seat immediately rather than allowing it to through the entire process first and congregating at the end of the line; in other words, to put the practice of jidoka into play. All staff involved in the production line will then have to be more critical in ensuring the best quality of the seats, and stop the production line once a defect is realized. However, repair staff would need to be well equipped to handle the situation. Furthermore, this solution requires the production line to stop, thus incurring costs. Solution 3: Switch to another seat supplier or source for additional suppliers to ease the current load on KFS since the current supplier delivers poor quality of seats which causes the problem in the manufacturing process. However, having more than 1 supplier may result in differences across the finished goods as it is difficult for two suppliers to provide identical seats. Solution 4: Stock safety inventory to use it as a buffer for the defective seats so as to decrease the wait time required to deliver replacement seats. However, having excess seat inventory will incur inventory cost. It is also against the JIT principal which hallmarks Toyota. Solution 5: Seats can be redesign such as changing plastic hooks back to metal to reduce the probability of one of the problems for defective seats, which is a broken hook. The focus of the solution should be aimed at improving the internal process problem which is decreasing the human error caused by variability of car seat style and also improving external process problem which is the quality of the car seats supplier. As show in Exhibit 8, the main cause of defective seats comes from the poor quality of seats delivered by the supplier. Therefore it is vital that we would firstly have to improve the delivered seats and Toyota can do so by bringing up this issue to the management at KFS. Toyota must demand for better quality products and if the problem continues due to poor quality of seats, Toyota should then source for additional suppliers to cover up for the lack of quality sets supplied by KFS. Once the external problem has been handled, Toyota must look at ways to improve the capabilities of its production line staff. By training them to handle the various seat styles for respective cars, it increases the skill level of the workers and hence decreases the probability of making an error. However, Toyota will incur training cost but these costs will reflect savings in the long run if its staff would make less errors hence improving the run ratio of the production line.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Hello aunt, my dear aunt I wish you a quick recovery, welcome to my advice on a heart-healthy diet. I suppose that your weight is between 48-68 kilogramÃ¢â¬â¢s, based on your weight and heart ailment I would suggest you avoid food rich in fat and too much polysaccharide. Note that your body needs about 430-610 calories per day also remember to include protein in your diet and fruits rich in vitamin. Your favorites break first should start with some fruits that have healing properties, for example apple, water melons which will cater for vitamins in your diet and further more your breakfast Ã require some proteins and this will force you to include sausages ,milk and some sweet potatoes. During lunchtime, you need to include leguminous protein for example green gram, some beans or lean meat. Remember strong protein food like fatty meat will overload your digestion. Add some vegetables in your lunch meal for example vegetables rich in iron like spinach, kales. Take soft drinks like fruit juice of mangoes, avocado or passion, avoid acidic fruits like oranges and also note that you are not supposed to take any drink with nicotine or strong tea to avoid high blood pressure. Take a sister and after some few minutes or so do some mild exercise. Your snack should have low sugar and carbohydrates. When it comes to your supper bear in mind that you need some bone mallow soup, egg yolk, some spaghetti because this will require boiling and no frying is needed. Add some garlic raw onions, raw cabbages, with this I belief your daily meal should not exceed 510 calories. I hope your supper will be at Paris Hotel where most dishes will suit your diet. In your second day meal schedule simply take less sugary snacks, warm milk or porridge rich in millet, a sausage or liver which will be enough for your breakfast. Have chicken, fish, some black nightshade vegetables and a little apple juice for your lunch. You can take sandwich as your snack after which you should go for some exercise example along Chicago River, Hopes you are feeling now more recuperating. Have a simple supper that will include boiled mutton and some grains and a cup of warm water. I wish you a quick recovery and good bye. Reference: Metro mix (2007) a journal on food diet, retrieved on 3rd august, ava
Sunday, September 15, 2019
You would find forms such as Material Availability Reports, Production Order Forms, Material Requisition Forms, a Production Schedule, and Production Status Forms in the production/conversion cycle. 2) Garbage in garbage out means that if you only put garbage into the data processing cycle, or bad materials or inputs, then you will only get garbage out. You cannot start with bad inputs and expect to get great outputs.To keep this from happening you need to focus on the Inputs that you are putting Into the cycle In order to create and be able to control better outputs. ) Documents that are turnaround documents are going to be forms that the company prints out and gives to an employee that needs to record information on it throughout the day and then input what he has recorded back into the company's computer system at the end of the day. One example would be a gas company who prints out forms and then the employ travels around to read customers meter numbers, he then records them and inputs them back into the computer.Problems: 2) x-x-x-xx X, 1-4 Division X, 1-6 = Major Categories X, 0-9 = Control Account -99 = Subsidiary Accounts for each control account 44 expense accounts would be In the subsidiary accounts for the expense control account, and the 12 variable accounts would be under their appropriate control account. Problems: AAA. Purchase Request C] Purchase Order C] Order Confirmation D Delivery Order C] Receipt/Product Invoice CLC Posting to GAL. or Inventory System b. Sales Order C] Order Number 0 Delivery of Order, Receipt CLC Sales Invoice Posting Sale Transaction to GAL. and Remove Inventory c. Employee Contract Signed 0 Salary Report/Voucher
Saturday, September 14, 2019
A pictorial account for the BUFFS Centennial August 2011 Part 1 : Transport, Supply, Reconnaissance This is a brief pictorial account of the history of fixed wing flying in the roles of transport, supply, reconnaissance, patrol and inventory with the British Columbia Forest Service. The Early Years By now, many of us have heard about or seen the results of the C Forest Branch's first foray Into the world of aircraft. A contract was Initiated by the Department of Lands with the Hoffa Motor Boat Company for the construction of a single engine two seat flying boat, to be used primarily for trolling.The H-2 biplane was constructed during the summer of 1 918 and test flights conducted toward the end of August and early September. On September 4th, on one of the early tests over Vancouver, the aircraft experienced engine problems and the pilot elected to head for the waters of Coal Harbor. It never made it. The aircraft stalled (quit flying) and spiraled onto the roof of a Figure 1 : Hoffa H-2 crash Vancouver Seep. 1918 house In West Vancouver. The H-2 was destroyed but the young pilot luckily sustained only minor Injuries. This ended the thought of Forest Service aircraft ownership for almost 80 years.In September of 1919, the first aerial discovery of a forest fire in B. C. Took place over Duncan. The pilot off Curtiss JNI-4 (possibly during an alarm mail flight) spotted the fire and landed at Duncan to report It to the Forest Branch, who then took suppression action. The end of WWW saw a surplus of aircraft and support equipment in both Europe and North America. After the war, governments and agencies recognized the value of aircraft in Figure 2: Curtiss JNI-4 first forest fire discovery 1919 supplies. The Canadian government formed the Dominion Air Board to oversee the growing civil aviation in Canada.Half a dozen air stations were established across the country in 1920 including Vancouver, located at Jericho Beach. The Vancouver Air Station soon acquired 2 types of flying boats. 2 The Curtiss HAS-AL was a single engine four place biplane with a payload of up to 700 pounds and a top speed of 70 MPH. The Flowstone F. 3 was a large twin engine flying boat capable of speeds over 85 MPH and a payload up to 12 people with gear. These aircraft were not used operationally in 1920 but the HAS-AL was tested and evaluated by the Forest Branch and Air Station in the fall.The 1921 fire season saw both types used in arioso roles by the Forest Branch including patrols, fire suppression and forest reconnaissance, inventory and photography. One HAS-AL was also based in Sampson during that summer. 1922 proved to be a serious fire season on B. C. Ã¢â¬Ës coast. The F. 3 proved it's worth transporting men and equipment to fires. Near the end of July the F. 3 transported men, equipment and camp supplies too fire near Battle Lake on Vancouver Island. The use of the F. 3 saved days of ground travel and undoubtedly prevented the fire from becoming a major event. By 1923, the Forest Branch had become somewhat disenchanted with both types of aircraft as they were becoming obsolete. Aircraft performance was not up to requirements especially in the mountains, and aircraft maintenance costs were high. In 1924 the Branch used the aircraft on a casual basis and only flew two dozen hours. By 1926 the regular use of aircraft for forestry work was severely curtailed. Figure 3: HAS-AL at Alert say late 1920. BC Archives AN-07649 Figure 4: Flowstone F. 3 1926 including an account of the 1918 accident, see the publication Ã¢â¬Å"Aircraft and Their Use in Forestry in B. C. 1918 Ã¢â¬â 1926Ã¢â¬ http://www. Abscess. Ca/docs/PDF/8/398. PDF 3 Through the late sass's and sass's occasional fire patrols and aerial spray projects were undertaken by the Branch, but not nearly on the scale of the early sass's. Fire patrols did continue with local civilian aircraft if they were available. Aircraft such as the Devaluing Moth were used for patrol and reconnaissa nce work. In 1929, in response to a outbreak of western hemlock eloper in Indian Arm near Vancouver, the Branch conducted an Ã¢â¬Å"experimental Figure 5: Devaluing Gypsy Moth Race 1935 dustingÃ¢â¬ project with a Boeing Flying Boat. 200 pounds of calcium arsenate was spread over 45 acres reportedly with Ã¢â¬Å"satisfactory resultsÃ¢â¬ . Primarily due to the Depression, the period between 1932 and WI proved to be lean years for aviation and fire suppression in the province. Fire suppression funding was severely curtailed during this time. Figure 6: Boeing Flying Boat dusting project Figure 7: Boeing BIB Flying Boat Indian Arm 4 WI and Post War Years During the Second World War Forest Branch personnel again recognized the value and potential of aircraft, particularly float planes in the fire detection and suppression roles.In 1942 they noted Ã¢â¬Å"there will be room for air transport in the post-war organization of the Forest BranchÃ¢â¬ . During this period lookout trained in the identification of hostile aircraft assisted the military as part of the Ã¢â¬Å"Aircraft Detection CorpsÃ¢â¬ . In return the military provided reconnaissance and transport flying when available. In 1943 and '44 local aircraft were chartered for specific projects. In 1945 the Branch contracted 2 float aircraft based in the Fort George District. One plane was smaller, suitable for reconnaissance work and the able to move men and equipment to remote fires.These aircraft also flew in the Nelson and Sampson Districts that season. The success of these aircraft lead to the addition of a second contract in 1946. Two Cessna Crane aircraft on wheels were based in Sampson and Nelson as well as the float aircraft in Fort George. This new contract was with Central B. C. Airways Ltd. Which went on to become Pacific Western Airlines in 1953. This started a lengthy association with this company into the sass's. Figure 8: Fairchild 82 Nelson River 1944 AN-08394 Parachute tests were conducted wi th the Crane in Sampson in 1946 using U. S. Surplus 6Ã¢â¬ ² cargo chutes.Figure 9: Cessna Crane 5 After the war, in response to the demands of Canadian bush operators, Devaluing Aircraft of Canada Ltd. Signed and developed the DC 2 Beaver. The prototype aircraft registered as CB-FEB. serial # 1 first flew in August 1947 and was acquired by Central B. C. Airways in early 1948. It wasn't long before FEB. was part of the B. C. Forest Service's contract fleet. Nearly 1700 Beavers were built between 1947 and 1968 and were registered in over 60 countries. There are many Beavers operating commercially and privately DC 2 the most popular bush aircraft in history.Figure 10: Beaver CB-FEB. near New Denver 1950 CB-FEB. is now preserved and on display at the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum in Rocklike / Ottawa. Over the next decade, the use of aircraft increased and became nearly routine. Workhorse types such as the Mourned Norman and Junkers JUJU/34 were used extensively, more often than n ot on floats. They transported and supported crews and supplies not only on fires but on projects such as lookout construction, saving a tremendous amount of time and money. One project saw the freely drop of packaged lumber to a drop site with the Junkers WWW aircraft.Figure 1 1: Central BC Airways Junkers W 34 transport Figure 12: Freely lumber drop Junkers 34 1949 AN-09884 6 By 1954 the Forest Service had a interact with Pacific Western Airlines for 6 float aircraft including: 4 Beavers, 1 Junkers 34 and 1 Fairchild 71 . They were based at Vancouver, Lakes, Prince George, Sampson and Nelson. All aircraft had a minimum 1000 pound payload and were paradox equipped. These were on top of the many charter operators and aircraft available throughout the province by the mid ass's.Several other Forest Service Divisions used the contract and charter aircraft including Surveys and Inventory Division. Figure 13: Pacific Western Airlines Norman 1956 In the late spring of 1955 disaster struck . A Pacific Western Cessna 180 floodplain (similar to the one pictured at right) departed Ocean Falls with the pilot and 3 survey creamers with the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division. Their eventual destination was Keenan where the survey crew camp was located. The aircraft never arrived. A search was military and 8 PAW aircraft.The aerial search officially ended on June 22nd. Forest Service survey vessels searched for another week or more, but the aircraft and occupants were never found. Figure 14: Cessna 180 floodplain Figure 1 5: Pacific Western Airlines Scans and Norman were part of the aerial reach 7 To illustrate the tremendous growth in the post war aviation industry in B. C. , by the spring of 1959 the Pacific Western Airlines fleet consisted of: 6 DC g's, 2 C ass's, 2 DC g's, 12 Norman, 23 Beavers, 2 Mallards, 8 Cessna ass's and 10 Bell 47 helicopters. Ass's and on Other aircraft types that emerged in the sass's and early ass's included the Fairchild Husky F II and the D evaluing DC 3 Otter, both of which also operated as water bombers. By 1965 the Forest Service contract fleet (in addition to retainers, birdsong and helicopters) consisted of 3 Beavers based at Vancouver, Sampson and Nelson, and 1 Otter based at Prince George. Their primary role was transporting fire fighters, work parties and supplies to inaccessible areas. On occasion they would serve in the roles of air patrol and reconnaissance.Figure 16: Fairchild Husky F II 6 Piper Super Cub PA ass's were also on contract to the Province. These 2 seat aircraft started flying for the Forest Service in 1960. In 1965 two were based at Dawson Creek, two at Smithies, one at Williams Lake and one at Keelson. They were considered Ã¢â¬Å"flying lookoutsÃ¢â¬ whose sole purpose was fire detection. They flew fixed patrol routes coverage. Figure 17: Devaluing DC 3 otter Figure 18: A Skyway Air Services Super Cub Ã¢â¬â illustrating oversized tires for use in soft, rough field operations 8 Again, in r esponse to demands of operators and customers, Devaluing Aircraft developed the DDCD Twin Otter.This twin engine turboprop aircraft was generally a replacement for the single Otter and provided greater reliability, payload and retained the short take off and landing (STOOL) capabilities. The Twin Otter's first flight was in May 1965. It went on to become a success internationally and has been a workhorse in B. C. For over 40 years in wheel, float and ski infatuation. We would be remiss in not mentioning the Grumman line of Figure 19: Air west DDCD -rate otter amphibious aircraft. The Grumman Widgeon, Goose and Mallard undoubtedly played an important part in this era in the history of B.C. F. S. Transport flying, especially on the coast. Figure 20: Grumman Widgeon Ã¢â¬â Harrison Airways Figure 21: Grumman Goose Ã¢â¬â BC Airlines 1968 Sandpit Figure 22: Grumman Mallard Ã¢â¬â Pacific Western Airlines 9 1967 proved to be the heaviest flying year in history to that point. Transp ort and reconnaissance flying in the province reached nearly 9000 hours with contract and harder aircraft, and accounted for over 40% of the overall flying that summer. Numbers and types of provincial contracted aircraft remained fairly static through and equipment was still in it's infancy through this period.The sass's saw increased use of agricultural aircraft in aerial spray, fertilization and grass seeding projects on the coast and in the southern interior. The Cessna 188 Goanna operated by Contain Aviation was a popular resource on these projects. Figure 23: Early ass's shot of Contain C 188 Ã¢â¬â possible tests of aerial drops of seedlings in plastic bullets Figure 24: Contain Goanna Ã¢â¬â spray calibration with Radiomen dye The Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre was formed in June of 1982 with British Columbia as one of the founding members. Cuff's mandate included Ã¢â¬Å"a cost effective sharing of resourcesÃ¢â¬ .The 1985 fire season was one of the worst in dec ades with over 3600 fires consuming 235,000 hectares. At peak periods there were over 8,000 firefighters employed. CIFS was to become a major benefit during this season. Aside from some aerial detection aircraft, there were no support or transport aircraft on long term contracts during this period. Several aircraft were placed on short term agreements, usually for 30 day periods. Douglas DC as and Figure 25: DC 3 operated by North Caribou Air 10 several Beech 200 King Airs were put on these agreements to guarantee their availability.The North Caribou Air Docs were kept very busy transporting firefighters and fire equipment especially in the southeast of the province. The King Airs were used primarily for transport of personnel, however one operated by Contain provided infrared mapping services on the larger fires in the south of the through the National Safety Council of Australia. Air patrols flew over 10,600 hours in 1985. Figure 26: Contain King Air infrared aircraft at Scrapbook 1985 Ã¢â¬ RamÃ¢â¬ fire in the background The B. C. F. S. Continued to use short term agreements for transport aircraft when needed through the late sass's and early sass's. Ass's and on The development of provincial sustained action (Unit) crews in the late sass's and early ass's lead to the need to transport these crews quickly, often from one end of the province to the other. In 1992 the province entered into a long term seasonal contract with Transcriptional Airlines for the services of a Contain 580. This also allowed for long distance pre-positioning of Initial Attack crews. Figure 27: TAP CIVIC safety Features card 1992 Figure 28: Trans-provincial C.V. 580 at Keelson 1992 11 In early 1993 Trans-provincial was purchased by Harbor Air and the B.C. F. S. Contract was continued with Keelson Flightiest Ltd. Flightiest (KEF) continued with the long term agreement through the busy 1994 fire season. They provided a Ã¢â¬Å"comb'Ã¢â¬ aircraft capable of carrying personnel and equipment together in the cabin area. In 1995, Contain Aviation supplied a contracted Devaluing Dash 7 leased from Trans Capital Airlines Figure 29: Flightiest C.V. 580 Sampson with fire crews 1994 from Ontario. The aircraft proved to e a success and led to negotiations with Contain over the winter of 1995 196.Figure 30: Contain/Trans Capital Dash 7 Bootstrap 1995 Figure 31 : Dash 7 C-EGGS demoralizing fire crews at Sampson ownership of aircraft? After 78 years, in January of 1996, the Forest Service Protection Branch entered into a Joint Venture partnership agreement with Contain Aviation for the ownership of a 4 engine DC Dash Ã¢â¬Å"comb'Ã¢â¬ transport aircraft. 12 The aircraft could seat up to 44 passengers and had an area dedicated for firefighting equipment or other cargo. The aircraft (registered as C-FIJI) was ideal for crew deployments within B. C. And to other adjacent agencies.The aircraft operated through the 2001 fire season, at which time Contain chose to limit thei r operations to fixed wing firebombing aircraft. The aircraft and parts were sold to Trans Capital in 2002. It went on to serve with the United Nations overseas. Figure 33: Dash 7 Captain outlining ramp procedures to fire crews prior to departing from Castle. Figure 32: Unveiling of Joint Venture Dash 7 spring of 1996 Contain President Barry Marksmen and Protection Branch Director Jim Dunlop in attendance. Figure 34: Interior of Ã¢â¬Ëvowel showing dedicated cargo area. Tourism Industry Tourism Industry of Bangladesh Term Paper International Business BUS 301 Submitted on: 20th July 2014 Letter of Transmittal Sub: Submission of term paper for completion of academic course Dear Madam, This is to inform you that we have completed our term paper on Tourism Industry of Bangladesh for the Summer 2014 semester as a requirement of our academic course International Business (BUS 301 The report encompasses on the functioning, organization, growth prospect, and other Important facets of tourism In Bangladesh.Through this report a bridge between our classroom learning about the theories and he reality of tourism Industry In Bangladesh has been established. It was, Indeed a great opportunity to study this industry of our own country. For extending our scope for learning, we shall like to take this platform to thank you. In writing this report, we have followed your instructions for report writing so as to present our views and understanding in the easiest possible ways. However, it will be our pleasure to clarify any discrepancies that may arise.Thank you in anticipation. Acknowledgements On the very first note we will like to thank the Almighty for helping us to complete this paper. It has been an honor and privilege to work with all those wonderful people who have contributed something of theirs to this paper. There are certainly some special ones who cannot go without mention. We express our humble gratitude to our respected faculty Ms Seedy Carnaubas Shabby, for her continuous support, assistance, guidance, and encouragement that has helped us sparing her valuable time to read this report.Table of Contents Executive Summary 5 6 8 8 Industry 12 Export growth 19 Industry production . 24 policy 30 value 39 This report provides detailed information about tourism industry in Bangladesh in the light of international business. It provides an industry overview, size and growth, domestic market, related export and import, industry capacity, industry segment, sq uired resources, policy initiatives, demand drivers, value chain, and industry analysis under Porter's Diamond model.The theories which have been learned on Bangladesh tourism industry so that the actual functioning of the theories can be witnessed. Bangladesh is a land enriched in natural beauty. It has a rich history and cultural background that presents that presents it with a wide array of tourism facility. In order to make the best use of the natural resources and historical sites the country has developed modern facilities like hotels, motels, restaurants, theme parks, ND other recreation and communication modes.The emergence of globalization have facilitated this industry and contributed to the country's GAP in a sustainable manner. Furthermore, it is also assisting other related and supporting industries to rise. Several international players have highlighted Bangladesh positively as a tourism destination during the last couple of years. The worldwide Endorsers of Nature cam paign included Sandbars and Cox's Bazaar among more than 440 candidate locations from 220 countries. Along with only 27 locations Sandbars is still a part of the competition.World leading publisher of travel guides and guidebooks, Lonely Planet, recommended Bangladesh as one of the top ten interesting travel destination in 2009. New travel guides have been published on Bangladesh by international renowned publishers. There should be no doubt, national as well as international; the Bangladesh tourism sector has indeed potential. But to make a successful international tourism destination it is Just not enough that Bangladesh has an interesting history, culture, nature and society to show Ã¢â¬â much more is required.Tourism sector of Bangladesh needs to be boosted through tragic management to raise gross domestic product of the country. As such linkage among vision, mission, goal and result are required. This will enhance tourism opportunity of the country. Introduction This academi c report has been prepared with the aim of studying tourism industry of Bangladesh. The main intention was to have an elaborate understanding of the industry in order to comprehend this industry as an internationally recognized industry.Specific objectives General study on the industry Ã¢â¬â industry size, growth, capacity, domestic market, etc ; Analyze the export opportunities and potentials of this industry and the related imports that are being drawn by this industry ; Extensive learning on the industry production capacity, human resource and other factor requirements, policy initiatives, and demand facilitation ; Learn about the value chain of this service industry ; Incorporating theories with actuality Scope of the report The report consists of details analysis of tourism industry in Bangladesh from multiple dimensions.Thorough inclusion of theories and examples has enriched the report. This may be used for future academic and professional use to some extent. The keen anal ysis of issues can be effective if it is nurtured further. Methodology For this report mainly secondary sources have been used for data collection and analysis ; Text books Websites Journals Other reports and publications The major limitation of this report is that it is strictly based on secondary data. No primary research has been conducted.An overview of various matters has been brought forward, but it is deficient in terms of objectivity to a little extent. Therefore, much elaborate research and groundwork has not been conducted. Furthermore, access to recent data few cases proved to be challenging. Outline: Tourism in Bangladesh is a developing foreign currency earner. The country was listed by Lonely Planet in 2011 as the Ã¢â¬Å"best value destinationÃ¢â¬ . Bangladesh tourist attractions include, historical and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species.Bangladesh offers ample opportunities to tourists for angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, yachting, sea bathing as well as bringing one in close touch with pristine nature. In the northern part, imprisoning the Rajahs division, there are archaeological sites, including the temple city Putrid in Rajahs; the largest and most ancient archaeological site, Manslaughter in Bogart; the single largest Buddhist monastery, Paragraph in Mango; the most ornamental terracotta Hindu temple in Bangladesh Kantian Temple, and many Raisers or palaces of old Seminars.In the south-eastern part, which is the Chitchatting division, there are natural and hilly areas like Chitchatting Hill Tracts, along with sandy sea beaches. The most notable beach, in Cox's Bazaar, is a contender for the title of longest unbroken sandy sea beach in the world. Cox's Bazaar is the longest natural unbroken sea beach in the world. In the south-western part, the world with Royal Bengal Tiger and spotted deer. The historically and architecturally important sixty domed mosque in Bege tter is a notable site. In the north-eastern part, Sylphs division, there is a green carpet of tea plants on small hillocks.Natural reserved forests are great attractions. Migratory birds in winter, particularly in the hoar areas, are also very attractive in this area. Overview of the Industry Ministry of Tourism and The Civil Aviation Ministry design national policies for the velveteen and promotion of tourism. The Ministry also maintains the Beautiful Bangladesh campaign. It was an ancient state founded around 300 BC where Bengal region (Bangladesh and West Bengal) lies today according to the information available from Wisped.Greek, Latin and Egyptian accounts about Sangria suggested that the country was located in the detail region of South Bengal. In many meetings, conferences, talk shows, seminars and travel fairs that were held in Dacha, the principle speakers including the tourism minister and senior tourism officials speak about tourist arrivals and tourism revenue. But thes e figures are not accepted as reliable by many users, because their mode of collection is not often dependable.The Ã¢â¬Å"tourist arrivalÃ¢â¬ figures are calculated on a monthly basis by the police department from reports at the entry check points and not by professionals. The foreign exchange figures are released by the Bangladesh Bank on the basis of returns furnished by the stakeholders of the tourism industry. While reports from tourism earnings are regular, the reports on tourist arrivals lag behind by years for reasons only known to government. During the last five years (2006-2010) Bangladesh achieved a total number of 15, 29,000 visitors and earned IIS$ 413. 00 million.In order to make these figures more reliable at the national and at the international levels, steps should be taken by the government to modernize the methods of collecting such statistics. There is a Tourism Satellite Accounting System for aggregating the figures of tourist arrivals and earnings, which hav e been introduced by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNTO). Bangladesh, a founding member of the UNTO, should avail this technical assistance from UNTO under the Ã¢â¬Ëdigital' Bangladesh program for streamlining these compilations.The World Travel and Tourism Council (WATCH) and UNTO reports say that international arrivals have been positive in 2012, although in the Euro Zone, due to sovereign debt issues and national austerity policies, tourism spending has declined. The pace of growth in the developing countries, including Bangladesh, is faster than in developed nations. Tourism and the resultant employments in the sector fluctuate with every major incident that affects the world; namely the global melt-down of banks, climate change, Tsunami and incidents like Arab spring.In order to adjust to the fluctuations, major tourist destinations adjust their tourism policies in time. The US government is very much awake to the problems of fluctuations. President Obama in January last year signed a law, The Travel Promotion Act 2010, to take steps in keeping domestic tourists at home and to attract more inbound tourists; keeping in mind that the number of Chinese visitors is expected to grow by 259% in the next 5 years and the number of Brazilian tourists is expected to swell by 83%.The US government is also liberalizing entry formalities by waving/relaxing the visa rules and allowing the undertaking giant travel promotion campaigns in their market areas and using high- profile spokes persons, websites, social media tools to work together to bring together interesting Ã¢â¬Å"traveling opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ to the international public and the traveling professionals.Comparing the situation of US, which look at all the problems affecting the globe with Bangladesh, may sound utopian but the point that is being made here is that the Bangladesh government should learn from the best practices in tourism development, and activate the government outfits to re spond to the modern marketing needs. Industry Size and Growth The government created the Tourism Board in 2009, in addition to the Bangladesh Parental Corporation, which existed for the last 40 years to expedite the growth of tourism in the country.It now appears that both the organizations are less active in their divided filed of activities. It has been learnt from a very senior officer of the Bangladesh Parental Corporation that during the last financial year (2011-2012), the government allocated TX. 650. O million to the Board for promoting and branding Bangladesh. A bulk of this allocation has remained unused. During the last year, the Board participated in some international tourism fairs but their presentations were the poorest due to a lack of experience.The Board is composed of 11 representatives drawn from various ministries of the government and 5 directors from private sectors, who do not directly transact with any tourism business. The Board is supposed to meet once in every 2 months to transact business but nothing is known about their activities. The Board does not inform the print and electronic media. There is a National Tourism Policy in the country and there is a National Tourism Council headed by the Prime Minister.But nothing is known to the public about the activities of this high level council. At present Cox's Bazaar, an unplanned beach town, having nearly 450 hotels and the motels, experiences seasonal traffics; and all kinds of illegal activities are conducted there, according to personal experience of some local and many foreign tourists and some official who work in the hotels there. The Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, despite its existence from 1975, has not been able to bring out any official hotel guide, travel agents guide and tour operators guide.The minister is generally seen performing routine functions such as banning mooing in tourist hotels (government by a law) has banned smoking in public places inauguration of 3 -4 travel fairs in a year and these travel fairs promote foreign destinations, rather than domestic tourist centers. Many promises came from the minister pretty fast before the listeners in the recent past, but the follow-up by his ministry remained pretty slow. At present, despite some investment in putting Bangladesh on the international tourism map, there has been a significant failure to make any real impression.The first priority for any Marketing and Communications activity is to rectify this failure. The government must define the key target audiences; analyze what the target group needs: history, archaeology, culture, heritage, cuisine and shopping; create affordable flights and facilitate travel documentation including making visas easy and accessible, especially for potential travelers from key markets (US, Europe, Australia, Japan and China).The present unhelpful attitudes of missions aboard and at the entry points to harass foreign travelers have to be rectified. It must be understood that welcoming the tourists and accommodation. Because of the very absorbing capacity of this industry which is influenced by the functions of many ministries, departments and private sector enterprises, the scope of tourism activities have expanded.UNTO, WATCH, ILL and UNESCO say that: tourism can generate revenue in areas of high biodiversity; tourism can raise public support for conservation since it can provide environmental education to visitors and local/rural people; tourism can catalyst economic opportunities for local/rural people; tourism can be less environmentally damaging than other revenue generating industries based on natural resources; tourism may be one of the few economic activities suited to take place within conservation areas coated on marginal land and tourism based on natural resources can theoretically be sustainable if its impacts are managed and mitigated.The multiplier effect of the tourist dollar bigger, as the dollar changes hands through 13 beneficiaries within the country. Most destination countries have superb five-star resorts and attractions, unique culture, landscape and heritage. Each place describes itself as having the friendliest people, and high standards of customer service. As a result, the need for destinations to create an identity -? to differentiate themselves from their competitors -? is more critical than ever.The Ã¢â¬ËBeautiful Bangladesh' slogan, upon which such activities are based at present, is common place and uncompetitive, in a highly sophisticated and competitive market. The work behind branding this nation should be done in Bangladesh, in consultation with sociologists, economists, researchers' economists and environmentalists. Tourism product development is designed to increase the income in the sector by implementation of a comprehensive plan of action that will guide towards dealing with estimated increase in business over the short, medium and long-terms.The strategies for the deve lopment and management of tourist destinations should, therefore, consider the needs and interests of all stakeholders in the tourism system: local/rural community, entrepreneurs, investors, governments, tourists and others. Tourism development needs social dialogue including negotiation, consultation and exchange of information between government, employers and workers on issues of common interest. The goal is to promote consensus building and democratic involvement with the stakeholders of tourism.This should start now and the existing gap be filled. Not only does the lands of Bangladesh have a history that goes back as much as 5,000 ears as an early civilization, an early international center of trade and commerce, it has the tangible, as well as the documentary, circumstantial and empirical evidence to demonstrate that through the centers of tourism attractions. Domestic market The attraction of tourism of a country depends upon its geology, natural beauty, heritage, archeology and history.Bangladesh, the ancient state founded around 300 BC is now a land of 154. 7 million people with an exponential market in tourism industry. With over 8% registered growth from the year 2000 to 2013 the domestic tourism market is full of potentials and opportunities. The domestic tourism of Bangladesh continues to be driven by major cities, like Dacha, Chitchatting, Rajahs and Sylphs etc. And mountain destinations for instance Reanimating, Geographic, Bandore.The locations hosting the massive salt water body like Kuwait, Cox's Bazaar are also the prime intention of native travelers plus the islands across the Bay nowadays regard personal well-being and relaxation as key factors in refreshing their daily lives, the home tourism flow showed smooth growth over the years and the stream of people in the popular tourist attractions rise in its peak in time of three ajar occasions-in the winter and after two Did festivals; Led-LU-fitter and Did-LU- dada.Over year growth of domest ic tourism Year Growth rate (Based on the number of trips and revenue from tourism sector) 2009 Ã¢â¬â 20104% 2010- 20116% 2011 Ã¢â¬â 20127. 25% 2012- 20138% To lodge this huge and consistent in ward flow of travelers in these cities, hotel and resort business flourishes impressively. Range of national and international hotels mounts in at the popular tourist destinations to give the travelers a sense of relief and relaxation from the monotony of city hustle and bustle. Hotel Roseville, Hotel Supreme and Maximizing resort are the popular choice of Sylphs.In Chitchatting, Hotel Graded, Hotel Costal Palace, Seagull hotel are operating in full swing. Hash's Inn, SUB Hotel International, Parental Motel etc. Are doing their business in Rajahs. In Ranging Parental Motel, Shah Manta Inn and Hotel North View are the first choice of the customers. Reports Bangle (hotel). Dacha Regency hotel, Platinum Suites are few among the range of hotel experience anyone can enjoy in the capital city of Bangladesh. Few top ranked hotels and resorts of Bangladesh tourism industries are Resort/ Hotel Special Features and LocationDacha Weston Location: Goulash Avenue, Plot-01, Road 45, Dacha 1212, Bangladesh. Height : 85. 91 m (281. 9 Ft), Rooms : 241 Restaurants : 6 , Floors count : 24 Hotel Garden Inn Fully air-conditioned rooms, gym facility, Wi-If advantage, sports zone, rent a car service, conference hall, separate swimming pools. Location: Sleet, Garden Tower, Shah]all Bridge Link Road. Radios Blue Water Garden Five star hotel services, with spa, health club and pool, business lounge facility, free WI-IF, grab and run late checkout facility, expressed checkout and one touch service. Location: Airport road, Dacha Cantonment, Dacha 1206.Coral Blue Only resort in SST. Martins. Facilities for diving, 24 hour reception Apart from the travel to cities and favorite destinations; local festivals and traditions fiestas as well as food tourism and cultural activities are increasingly driving Bangladesh countrymen to discover their nation state more exclusively than ever before. The food industry literally starts booming from the years of the recent past. A number of local and international food courts and restaurant chains are introduce and they are plating high quality international standard recipes with local style, spices and taste in it.To mention few names, international chain restaurants like KEF, Pizza hut, A, Node's and native delights like Nana barbarian, Beauty leach, Mistake chap, Handier barbarian will come upfront. Major tourist attractions of Bangladesh Although there is room for improvement in tourism industry, still there exist a handful of tourism spots for visits. These limited facilities are concentrated in some places, like Dacha, Chitchatting and Sylphs Divisions. In Chitchatting Division, the site seeing facilities are mainly located at Cox's Bazaar, Reanimating, Saccharine and Bandanna districts.Maintain at Comical is an important archaeol ogical site and Alabama Fort in Dacha is a great historic site. In Sylphs Division, the major tourist attractions are located mainly at Gaffing, Manhandled, Tea gardens and the Shrines of Hardhat Shah Jail and Shah Porn. Some renowned attractions in Rajahs Division are Cantata's Temple, Swapping, Rampages and Raja at Dinosaur, Paragraph at Nonage, and Manslaughter at Bogart. In Kulak Division, some attractions are Shutterbug Mosque at Begetter and Sandbar, the largest mangrove forest in the world, is located in the southern part of Kulak Division along the Bay of Bengal.This mangrove forest has been declared as a World Heritage site. There is no denying the fact that, Bangladesh has not made enough efforts to preserve and develop its tourism sites of historical, cultural and environmental interests and that is reason why Bangladesh is not earning as per the expectation from this prospective industry of tourism. Considerable efforts of the Government as well as private sectors are ne cessary here to make this industry flourish so that the domestic market can rise and people of our country gets more interested in discovering their own country ether than visiting other countries as holiday destination.Export growth regarding size and market In tourism industry export is regarded as percentage (%) of total export; which is basically the international tourist receipts (% of total exports) in Bangladesh. An international tourist receipt means the expenditure by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These payments include any other payment made for goods or services received in the destination country. The data shown in the graph shows that international tourist receipts got a onwards trend with some fluctuations.There is lack of budgetary allocation and scarcity of trained people for the development of tourism sector in Bangladesh and to international tourist through advertisement in international print a nd electronic media. Eventually these factors lead to a stagnant growth rate and make the tourism industry a slow operating revenue generating entity. The data shown in the graph reveal that foreign earnings got a rhythmic upward trend for the first 6 years(2001-2006) and then it remained almost stable for the following few years (2006-2010).