Sunday, January 26, 2020
Industry analysis and market trends for Vodafone Vodafone PLC is one of the worlds largest mobile communications companies by revenue, operating across the globe providing a wide range of communications services. The companys vision is to be the communications leader in an increasingly connected world. Vodafone was formed in 1984 as a subsidiary of Racal Electronics PLC. Then known as Racal Telecom Limited, approximately 20% of the companys capital was offered to the public in October 1988. It was fully demerged from Racal Electronics PLC and became an independent company in September 1991, at which time it changed its name to Vodafone Group PLC. Following its merger with AirTouch Communications, Inc. (AirTouch), the company changed its name to Vodafone AirTouch PLC on 29 June 1999 and, following approval by the shareholders in General Meeting, reverted to its former name, Vodafone Group PLC, on 28 July 2000. (History Vodafone.2010 [Online]). Group highlights for the 2010 financial year: Financial Highlights: Total revenue of Ã £44.5 billion, up to 8.4% with improving trends in most markets through the year. Adjusted operating profit of Ã £11.5 billion, a 2.5% decrease in a recessionary environment. Data revenue exceeded Ã £4 billion for the first time and is now 10% of service revenue. Ã £1 billion cost reduction programme delivered a year ahead of the schedule; further Ã £1 billion programme now underway. Final dividend per share of 5.65 pence, resulting in a total for the year of 8.31 pence, up 7%. Higher dividends supported by Ã £7.2 billion of free cash flow, an increase of 26.5%. Operational Highlights: Vodafone is one of the worlds largest mobile communication companies by revenue with 341.1 million proportionate mobile customers, up 12.7% during the year 2010. Improved performance in emerging markets with increasing revenue market share in India, Turkey and South Africa during the year 2010. Expanded fixed broadband costumer base to 5.6 million, up 1 million during the year 2010. Comprehensive Smartphone range, including the iPhone, Blackberry Bold and Samsung H1. Launch of Vodafone 360, a new internet service for the mobile and Internet. High speed mobile broadband network with peak speeds of up to 28.8 Mbps. (Vodafone Group 2010 Annual Report, p. 1) Chairmans Statement: The company continues to deliver strong cash generation, is well positioned to benefit from economic recovery and looks to the future with confidence Sir John Bond Chairman, Vodafone Chief Executives Review: In a challenging economic environment our financial results exceeded our guidance on all measures; we increased our commercial focus, delivered our cost reduction targets ahead of schedule and maintained strong capital investment levels. Victorio Colao Chief Executive, Vodafone Telecommunication Industry At a glance: The telecommunication industry has grown rapidly in size to provide essential services that facilitate a fundamental human need to communicate. There are 4.7 billion mobile customers across the globe with growth around 20% per annum over the last three years. Vodafone is a leading company with a 7% share of the global market. The majority of customers are in emerging markets such as India and China. In contrast growth has been more muted in developed regions such as Europe which are relatively mature. ( Vodafone Group 2010 Annual Report, p. 4) On-going competitive and regulatory pressures have contributed to significant reductions in mobile prices which are being partly offset by higher mobile usage. Competition in the telecommunications industry is intense. Consumers have a large choice of communication offers from established mobile and the fixed line operators. The combinations of competition and regulatory pressures have contributed to a 17% per annum decline in the average price per minute across their global network over the last three years. (Vodafone Group 2010 Annual Report, p. 4) Major Trends: The mobile industry continues to evolve rapidly, driven by new source of revenue, raising Smartphone proliferation and new technologies. Services: Around 80% of our service revenue comes from traditional voice and messaging services. The remaining 20% stems from the faster growing areas of mobile data and fixed broadband. (Vodafone Group 2010 Annual Report, p. 5) Network and product evaluation: This industry is undergoing significant technological change, with faster download speeds and product innovation improving the customer experience. They have been a pioneer in a range of new products. These include high speed mobile broadband for Internet and email access and femtocells to enhance customers indoor 3G signals via their household broadband connection. (Vodafone Group 2010 Annual Report, p. 5) Market Trends: If we observe and study the market trends in Europe alone, the trends seems to be improving continuously in Service Revenue, Enterprise Service Revenue, volumes in outgoing voice and data revenue. Vodafone demonstrates a strong economic stability in terms of revenue growth. Major Competitors: According to research by London-based firm IRS, competencies are most often used in: Performance management/appraisal. Personal-development planning. Management training and development. Job descriptions. Role specifications. Management selection. (Sue Dewhurst and Liam FitzPatrick, 2007, How to develop outstanding internal communications, pp: 14.) Vodafone PLC got many a few core competitors and the competency can be measured in terms of marketing strategy, revenue or the services it offer. Here, we are considering three core competitors as Virgin Group, British Telecommunications PLC and O2 Group. Lets throw some light on these companies to know more about the financial and market status. About British Telecom Group PLC: BT (British Telecom) Group PLC is operating in more than 170 countries, is one of the leading providers of communication solutions and services. Their principal activities include networked IT services, local, national and international telecommunications services, and higher value broadband and Internet products and services. (Our Company BT.2010 [Online]) BT Group PLC is listed as BT.A in London Stock Exchange. About Virgin Group: Virgin Group is a leading branded venture capital organization and it is one of the worlds most recognized and respected brands. The Virgin Group was started in 1970 by Sir Richard Branson, which has gone on to grow very successful businesses in sectors ranging from mobile telephony to transportation, travel, financial services, media, music and fitness. (About Us Virgin. 2010. [Online]) Virgin Group is listed as VMED in London Stock Exchange. About O2 Group: O2 Group, also known as TelefÃ ³nica O2 UK Limited, is a leading provider of mobile and broadband services to consumers and businesses in the UK. O2 is the leader in non-voice services, including texts, media messaging, games, music and video, as well as data connections via GPRS, HSDPA, 3G and WLAN. O2 UK is part of the TelefÃ ³nica O2 Europe group which comprises integrated fixed/mobile businesses in the UK, Ireland, Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia all of which use O2 as their consumer brand. Recently, O2 has established the Tesco Mobile joint venture business in the UK and Ireland. O2 is a completely owned subsidiary of TelefÃ ³nica S.A. (O2 UK History TelefÃ ³nica O2 UK Limited. 2010. [Online]). O2 Group is listed as TCEZ in London Stock Exchange.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Abstract Kanban Pull System is a method of controlling the flow of production through the factory based on a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. Pull Systems control the flow of resources in a production process by replacing only what has been consumed. Kanban Pull System is a system that suitable for SMIs Company in Malaysia. Next, is discusses about Kanban Pull System Process for SMIs company in Malaysia. Kanban is a sign, symbol, or in the production process trigger signal is generated at the time of lean production and supply.Is a production Kanban pull or Kamban of JIT, Kanban signals from one process to the next process, to produce more parts in the main method. Besides that, Kanban Pull System has a lot of benefit for SMIs Company in Malaysia such as reduce overall inventory, reduce work in process, reduce order turnaround time, increase customer satisfaction, and improve cash flow. In addition, SMIs Company in Malaysia can use Triangle Kanban Pull System for success their business. key words: Kanban Pull System, Kanban Pull System is a system that suitable for SMIs Company in Malaysia, Kanban Pull System Process for SMIs Company in Malaysia, Kanban Pull System is a system that suitable for SMIs Company in Malaysia Kanban Pull System has a lot of benefit, and SMIs Company in Malaysia can use Triangle Kanban Pull System. 2. 0 Introduction Global manufacturing enterprises continue to increase their production and operation to recover, especially in the automotive and computer industries a competitive advantage.Industry challenges, e-commerce and customers via the Internet Order transferred to the configuration of the production equipment and make-up of environmental safety. Traditional large-scale production is not particularly adapted to clients' needs changing; it depends on forecasts of future demand and scheduling system to meet the expected demand for production work. Production systems, often with an inventory of products. In addition, a high level, and the ser vice is no longer taken from time to delivery.In contrast, only depend on current production, cause the release of work into the system, and Ã¢â¬Å"pullÃ¢â¬ system, to meet real demand. Timely production is better for the production of ideas, arguing that the right product at the right time and right amount of product that can meet customer needs changing. Reconfigurable systems enable rapid and low-cost replacement for capacity allocation, the desired product. Manufacturers are also moving off-line, and the need for suppliers to deliver the module sub-assemblies.Therefore, the pull system manufacturing and installation, basic understanding is essential for the orderly implementation of the paradigm. Industrial Engineering degree courses in general, including analysis of production and management process, but time and submits the concept of lean manufacturing principles. Many students also take language simulation, random number generation, input modeling, verification and valida tion strategies, and the analysis of simulation output, which includes course.However, little or no text books discuss the pull system using a simulation model, control, and analysis of materials. This article attempts to address this deficiency, and can be used as a simulation, and production and management courses added. This simulation model used to describe the mechanism of exciting the system, provide the reader with a Ã¢â¬Å"hands onÃ¢â¬ approach to the kanban system. And Zazanis Spearman (1992) provides a discussion of more advanced, push, pull-pull system to improve performance over conventional propulsion system and the current theory of motivation.They help this paper argues that the analysis of interesting systems, and provides a number of suspects, to encourage readers to consider, and pull the article describes the simulation model. 3. 0 Kanban Pull Systems Kanban Pull System is a method of controlling the flow of production through the factory based on a customerÃ¢â ¬â¢s demand. Pull Systems control the flow of resources in a production process by replacing only what has been consumed. They are customer order-driven production schedules based on actual demand and consumption rather than forecasting.Implementing Pull Systems can help you eliminate waste in handling, storing, and getting your product to the customer. Pull Systems are an excellent tool to use in the areas where cellular or flow manufacturing cannot be achieved. Kanban is a sign, flag, or signal within the production process to trigger the production and supply of product as part of Just in Time in Lean manufacturing. Kanban or Kamban is the main method by which pull production is realized within JIT, the Kanban being the signal from one processes to a preceding process to produce more components.Most people have seen Kanban in operation but just do not realize it, there are two well known retail chains that spring to mind when considering Kanbans, the first is the chain that can produce your spectacles within the hour while you wait; your order is dropped into a tray, this tray is the Kanban, it is moved from one process to the next, each step being completed as per your specification within the hour. If there are no spare trays the assistant within the store knows that they cannot produce your glasses within the hour as capacity is all used up.The second example is that of a certain fast food / burger joint, between the server and the kitchen is what is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"burger regulator. Ã¢â¬ As the servers remove burgers from the regulator this is the signal to produce more to the kitchen behind. Batch sizes for production are changed during the day to match expected demand for peak and slow periods, if used correctly (many of the youngsters in these places seem to think they know better than the system! ) 95% of customers should find their order freshly available without having to wait. Figure 1: Kanban Pull SystemFigure 2: Kanban systems combined with unique scheduling tools, dramatically reduces inventory levels, increases turns, enhances supplier/customer relationships and improves the accuracy of manufacturing schedules. 4. 0 Should Every SMIs company in Malaysia Use Kanban Pull System? The next question to address is should pull systems be implemented in most SMIs company in Malaysia. The two types of pull systems respond slightly differently to changes in volume and product mix. The major disadvantage for both types of pull systems is that they require fairly steady product flow.Kanban is typically restricted to repetitive manufacturing where material flows at a steady rate in a fixed path. Large variations in volume or product mix destroy the flow and undermine the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s performance goals. If there is too much WIP, the goal of minimizing WIP in the system is not achieved, and financial flexibility in dealing with scheduling and engineering changes is lost. If there is too little WIP, throughput goals cannot be attained. While still requiring a relatively steady volume, is a little more resilient in handling changes in product mix.The difference between their capabilities of handling product mixes has to do with the individual products having different bottlenecks and how WIP is controlled within the system. Questions to consider when assessing whether a pull system should be adopted include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ How often do design, engineering and schedule changes occur? Ã¢â¬ ¢What are the economic consequences of maintaining the current system compared to converting to a pull system? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can a pull system reduce overall lead-time compared to a push system? Ã¢â¬ ¢Are suppliers reliable enough to support just-in time delivery of raw materials or subcomponents? Is the production system reliable, or does it suffer frequent breakdowns that stop production? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Are labor and management committed to making the changes needed? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How often and how significantly does the product mix change? In situations where a pull system is found to be acceptable for a facility, a decision of which type of pull system to implement must be made. As discussed previously, the choice depends on the level of WIP control desired (at the individual workstation level, or a Ã¢â¬Å"black boxÃ¢â¬ system level). 5. 0 Kanban Pull System Process for SMIs company in MalaysiaKanban is a sign, symbol, or in the production process trigger signal is generated at the time of lean production and supply. Is a production Kanban pull or Kamban of JIT, kanban signals from one process to the next process, to produce more parts in the main method. Most people have seen the billboard operations, but did not realize it, there are two well-known retail chains, spring to mind when considering signs, the first chain to produce your glasses in an hour, while you wait; order down to the tray, tray this kanban, they move to the next process, each step in an hour to complete, according to your specifications.If no alternate storage tray assistants know that they cannot come in one hour is your ability to walk out of the glass. The second example is the fast food / burger venture between servers and kitchen, which is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Hamburg rules. Ã¢â¬ Hamburg because the server was removed from the regulations, to produce more in the kitchen behind the signal. On that day, to meet expected demand at the summit and slowly, if used correctly (young people in these places, many people seem to think they know better than the system! 95% of customers need to find the size of the production fresh they may have to wait for change orders. 6. 0 Benefit of Kanban Pull System for SMIs company in Malaysia 1. Reduce overall inventory 2. Reduce work in process 3. Reduce order turnaround time 4. Increase customer satisfaction 5. Improve cash flow 7. 0 Successes of Kanban Pull System for SMIs company in Malaysia A maker of fine table linens was able to slash its average order turnaround time from 3-w eeks to 3-days using a Pull System. The changes eliminated bottlenecks in production and increased responsiveness to customer needs.A manufacturer of high-quality packaging machinery implemented a multi-faceted Lean transformation. A Pull System was used to smooth the flow of WIP. The changes decreased WIP by 62% and dramatically increased the number of orders completed each day. Pull Systems/Kanban-and other lean techniques-were implemented by a manufacturer of custom fiberglass and vacuum form products. These changes increased productivity by 20%, reduced inventory by 53%, decreased lead-time by 63%, and far exceeded their targeted goals. 8. Simulation Models of Kanban Pull System for SMIs company in Malaysia Simulation models have been developed in Arena 3. 5 and tested in Arena 4. 0 for the Kanban Systems in Figures 1 and 2 respectively (Marek, 2000). The reader is assumed familiar with the basics of simulation programming and analysis. The code for these models is presented in the following sections for the reader to obtain a Ã¢â¬Å"hands-onÃ¢â¬ feel for the different pull mechanics in each system. The serial manufacturing systems being modeled contain four workstations, and must produce two types of products.The make-to-order production facility has reconfigurable manufacturing equipment, allowing rapid and low cost changeovers to switch between product types. The setup times for changing between product types are considered to be zero on the assumption that the products are quite similar. This is a realistic assumption, for production line designers are now examining the value of agile tooling, fixtures, and material handling, so that any part in a general family may be produced on the line if the designed part fits within he lineÃ¢â¬â¢s production envelope. For this reason, product types are not batch processed on a forecasted basis, but are processed on a first-come first serve (FCFS) basis as orders arrive. Product types are assigned from a disc rete probability distribution for each arriving order with 70% type 1 and 30% type 2. Process times at each workstation may depend on product type. Machine breakdowns and supply chain failures are currently not considered. The variance reduction technique of Common Random Numbers (CRN) (Pegden, et al. 1995) is employed to synchronize usage of random numbers in the Kanban Systems so that the systems are compared under similar conditions. Each system observes the same sequence of arrivals of type 1 and type 2 jobs and uses the same processing times for jobs at each workstation. This approach is often justified for scenario analysis whereby the analyst seeks to compare two or more alternatives (systems) and control specified parameter sequences while permitting other system parameters to vary.By designing the various simulation runs, the analyst can better distinguish the impact(s) of specific changes in the scenarios. Throughout the remainder of this paper, specific ARENA modeling con structs are used to define the modeling approach. The ARENA SEEDS element controls the six random number streams used (See Table 1). By using common random numbers, randomness in experimental conditions is reduced, and any measured differences in the two systems are due to the pull behavior and card control level used. Stream| Seed| Purpose| 1| 2323| Job Inter-Arrival Times| | 4545| Workstation 1 Processing Times| 3| 8080| Workstation 2 Processing Times| 4| 8181| Workstation 3 Processing Times| 5| 1717| Workstation 4 Processing Times| 6| 1974| Job Type| Table 1: Random Number Streams 9. 0 Kanban Pull System Focus for SMIs company in Malaysia A Kanban card can be generated to identify production of part(s) to replenish in-house inventories, a withdrawal of product for shipment to a customer, or to signal the replacement of raw materials and components. Using Kanbans there must be a purchase or an order to generate the card.The product is pulled through the production sequence based o n the order from the customer. Pull/Kanban is a part of the Lean Production or Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing process, applying Lean principals to eliminate waste. Every method in the Lean production system focuses on the elimination of waste. Lean principals should not be limited only to manufacturing operations, all areas of a company can benefit from the application of Lean principals. Reduction of waste ensures lower costs, higher quality products, and better service and delivery. 10. Triangle Kanban Pull System for SMIs company in Malaysia The method that Toyota facilities would follow most of the time in connecting a batch process to a downstream assembly process is called the triangle kanban. Below is an example in rough detail of how to evaluate to use this method for implementation (See LEI Workbook Creating Level Pull for a more detailed explanation). The example assumes you have a batch machining department feeding some type of final assembly. The machining department h as five machines building 11 totally different product variations.The demand for each product varies significantly, as does the standard pack quantity of each part. The setup time for changeover is about three hours. 1. Take the 11 part numbers and dedicate them to the five machines. (Ideally for example four machines will have two part numbers to run and one will have three part numbers to run, but this depends upon volume and mix, etc. ) 2. Now let us take one machine which now has several dedicated part numbers assigned to run on it. 3. Create a single triangle kanban for each part number including the following information (see picture below). . Part number b. Part description c. Inventory location d. Machine to be run on e. Space for date triggered to be written f. Tool number g. Lot size* h. Trigger or reorder point* *WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll calculate these below 4. Determine the required daily run time for each part number. Calculate your average daily demand for each part number. If yo u havenÃ¢â¬â¢t leveled the build in final assembly itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably wise to add some amount in to cover demand variation. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s assume that you have two shifts of eight hours available production time which equals 16 hours of production (simplest case).If you have two part numbers on a machine, you can derive required production time based upon average daily demand and the cycle time to run the 3 part number. For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say, for ease of calculation, that required production time adds up to 10 hours. 5. Determine the time available for changeovers. In the simple case of 16 hours of production and 10 hours of demand it leaves six hours for changeovers each day. You should incorporate any average down time and scrap you have in the short run Ã¢â¬â but eliminate this in the long run. Thus, in our simple case (ignoring downtime, etc. you have available time for two changeovers daily or roughly one per shift under current calculations. 6. Determine your lot size for each part number. There are different ways to do this but for simplicity I will only describe the easiest. In this case your lot size is simply set at one day of production since you probably have two part numbers on this machine and will average two changeover events per day. In essence you are making every part ever day. If you had 10 part numbers on the machine and only two changeovers per day you would have lot sizes of five days. . Determine your trigger point for replenishment. To do this, add up the run time for the longer of the other components, add the changeover time, and add the time to make the first container and get it reliably back into the market. This is the minimum level you can establish for a replenishment trigger point for product. (An average trigger point might be 300 pieces. ) The system works by hanging a single triangle kanban at the trigger point in the inventory location. When the trigger point is reached, material handling takes it back to the producing machine.The kanban is hung on a rail at the machine and dictates what to build next and the lot size. The triangle pull system has many advantages. It is virtually self-running once established as long as average demand does not change. If it does, change your lot sizes accordingly. Also, the triangle helps stabilize quality since product is dedicated to a machine, and it takes out some variability but you can choose to run product on other machines. The down side is that the inventory in the market is not visible at all times since there is no batch board with cards.You do see, however, how many kanban are hanging on a rail at the machine which is a good indication of inventory depletion and a tool for visual control. Furthermore, there is only one kanban per part number to manage. Other minor challenges include, of course, figuring out the die maintenance schedule (for some types of machine) and what impact this will have on the schedule. Also you must figure out a simpl e signal to reliably bring any needed raw material to the machine. Figure 3: Sample Work Flow Using Triangle Kanban for SchedulingFigure 4: Triangle Kanban Detail In the end, you must decide what is the main goal is of implementing the pull system. Each of the three described ways works in terms of scheduling a batch process in conjunction with a market but each has a slightly different emphasis in mind. It might be worth the time to calculate the inventory levels, run times, operating rules for each of the three different ways. Construct a simple matrix, evaluate each of them in accordance with your priorities, and select the one that best fits your needs and company ability. 1. 0 Conclusion At this point, the reader should feel comfortable with the basic concepts, modeling, and card reduction techniques for Kanban systems. The major advantages of implementing a pull system include reduced cycle time variability, and economic flexibility to make engineering and design changes. Whil e Kanban systems maintain tighter control of system WIP through the individual card resources at each workstation, Kanban systems are easier to implement and adjust, since only one set of system cards is used to manage system WIP.The card reduction strategy discussed also demonstrates how simulation can be used as an effective decision support tool for production operations. Additionally, modeling pull systems with virtually any simulation language can present challenges to the analyst in that one must be somewhat innovative in the construction of the model and fully understand how to apply the given modeling constructs to effect a valid model. ARENA was chosen as the underlying simulation language because of its wide applicability in industry, and its ease-of-use as a teaching language.The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience is that it is straight forward to learn additional simulation languages after learning concepts of process flow and modeling techniques using a first simulation languag e. The Kanban systems logic should be relatively easy to implement in other simulation languages (such as AutoMod, Witness, ProModel, Simul8, etc. ) that specialize in modeling manufacturing process flows. Thus, by studying the example problem contained herein, a greater insight and appreciation for the logic and application of the modeling constructs (especially in the ARENA frame) are obtained. 2. 0 References Marek, R. P, Elkins, D. A, Smith, D. A (2001). Understanding The Fundamentals of Kanban and Conwip Pull Systems using Simulation. Spearman, M. L, Woodruff, D. L, Hopp, W. J, (1990). Conwip: A Pull Alternative to Kanban. Deleersnyder, J. L, Hodgson, T. J, Malek, H. M, Grady, P. J. O (1989, September). Kanban Controoled Pull Systems: An Analytic Approach. Karmakar, S. U (1986, June). Interating MRP with Kanban/Pull Systems. Working paper Sereies No. QM8165. Krar, Steve. Pull (Kanban) Systems Smalley, A. Connecting Assembly with batch Processes via basic Pull Systems
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Butterfly houses offer enthusiasts of all ages the opportunity to observe a variety of species in an indoor exhibit. Most butterfly houses mimic tropical environmentsÃ¢â¬â¹ and showcase tropical species from Asia, South America, Australia, and other warm, humid locations. A few butterfly houses listed here feature species native to North America. Usually, youll see some showy moths, such as luna moths or Atlas moths, perched on foliage as well.Ã¢â¬â¹ Before you visit a butterfly house, it might increase your enjoyment to learn a little about the lepidopteran, or butterfly, including tips for observing and photographing butterflies, the differences between butterflies and moths, and why butterflies drink from puddles, a behavior you will likely observe in a butterfly exhibit. Most butterfly houses have an area where you can see new adult butterflies emerge from their pupae, and some display larval food plants as well. Some butterfly houses listed here are seasonal, meaning they are open for only a part of the year. Be sure to call before you visit to be sure the butterflies are on display. This is a list of enclosed butterfly houses, not outdoor butterfly gardens. Alabama Huntsville Botanical Garden4747 Bob Wallace Ave.Huntsville, Alabama 35805(256)-830-4447 Seasonal. Call before you visit. California Natural History Museum of Los Angeles CountyButterfly Pavilion900 Exposition Blvd. Los Angeles, California 90007(213) 763-DINO Seasonal. Call before you visit. San Diego Zoo Safari ParkHidden Jungle15500 San Pasqual Valley RoadEscondido, California 92027(760) 747-8702 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Six Flags Discovery Kingdom1001 Fairgrounds DriveVallejo, California 94589(707) 643-6722 Year-round Colorado Butterfly Pavilion6252 W. 104th Ave.Westminster, CO 80020(303) 469-5441 Year-round Delaware Delaware Nature SocietyBarley Mill RoadHockessin, Delaware 19707(302) 239-2334 Seasonal. Call before you visit. District of Columbia Smithsonian National Museum of Natural HistoryButterfly Pavilion10th Street and Constitution Ave., NWWashington, D.C. 20560(202) 633-1000 Year-round National ZooPollinarium3001 Connecticut Ave., NWWashington, DC 20008(202) 633-4888 Year-round Florida Butterfly World3600 W. Sample RoadCoconut Creek, Florida 33073(954) 977-4400 Year-round Butterfly RainforestFlorida Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of FloridaSW 34th Street and Hull RoadGainesville, Florida 32611(352) 846-2000 Year-round Key West Butterfly and Nature Conservatory1316 Duval St.Key West, Florida 33040(800) 839-4647 Year-round Panhandle Butterfly House8581 Navarre ParkwayNavarre, Florida 32566(850) 623-3868 Seasonal. Call before you visit. BioWorks Butterfly GardenMuseum of Science and Industry (MOSI)4801 E. Fowler Ave.Tampa, Florida 33617(800) 995-MOSI Year-round Georgia Callaway GardensCecil B. Day Butterfly Center5887 Georgia Highway 354Pine Mountain, Georgia 31822(800) CALLAWAY Seasonal. Call before you visit. Illinois Brookfield ZooChicago Zoological Society 8400 31st St.Brookfield, Illinois 60513(708) 688-8000 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Chicago Academy of SciencesThe Peggy Notebaert Nature MuseumJudy Istock Butterfly Haven2430 N. Cannon DriveChicago, Illinois 60614(773) 755-5100 Year-round Peck Farm Butterfly House4038 Kaneville RoadGeneva, Illinois 60134(630) 262-8244 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Iowa Reiman GardensIowa State University1407 University Blvd.Ames, Iowa 50011(515) 294-2710 Year-round Kansas Butterfly/Pansy House701 Amidon StWichita, Kansas 67203(316) 264-0448 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Louisiana Audubon InsectariumButterflies in Flight6500 Magazine St.New Orleans, Louisiana 70118(800) 774-7394 Year-round Maryland Brookside Gardens South ConservatoryWings of Fancy Butterfly Exhibit1500 Glenallan Ave.Wheaton, Maryland 20902(301) 962-1453 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Michigan Detroit ZooWoodward Avenue and 10 Mile Road (I-696)Royal Oak, Michigan 48067(248) 541-5717 Year-round Original Mackinac Island Butterfly HouseMcGulpin StreetMackinac Island, Michigan 49757(906) 847-3972 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Wings of MackinacSurrey Hills Carriage MuseumMackinac Island, Michigan 49757(906) 847-9464 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Dow Gardens1809 Eastman Ave.Midland, Michigan 48640(800) 362-4874 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Frederik Meijer Gardens Sculpture ParkLena Meijer Tropical Conservatory1000 E. Beltline, NEGrand Rapids, Michigan 49525(888) 957-1580 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Missouri Sophie M. Sachs Butterfly HouseFaust Park15193 Olive Blvd.Chesterfield, Missouri 63017(636) 530-0076Ã¢â¬â¹ Year-round New Jersey Camden Childrens Garden Philadelphia Eagles Four Season Butterfly House 3 Riverside DriveCamden, New Jersey 08103(856)-365-8733 Year-round Stony Brook Millstone Watershed AssociationKate Gorrie Butterfly House31 Titus Mill RoadPennington New Jersey 08534(609) 737-3735 Seasonal. Call before you visit. New York American Museum of Natural HistoryButterfly ConservatoryCentral Park West at 79th StreetNew York, New York 10024(212) 769-5100 Seasonal. Call before you visit. National Museum of PlayOne Manhattan SquareRochester, New York 14607(585) 263-2700 Year-round Sweetbriar Nature Center62 Eckernkamp DriveSmithtown, New York 11787(631) 949-6344 Seasonal. Call before you visit. North Carolina North Carolina Museum of Life Science433 Murray AveDurham, North Carolina 27704(919) 220-5429 Year-round North Carolina Museum of Natural SciencesLiving Conservatory 11 W. Jones St.Raleigh, North Carolina 27601(919) 733-7450 Year-round Ohio Krohn Conservatory1501 Eden Park DriveCincinnati, Ohio 45202(513) 421-4086 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Cox Arboretum Metro Park 6733 Springboro PikeDayton, Ohio 45449(937) 434-9005 Seasonal. Call before you visit. The Butterfly House Obee RoadWhitehouse, Ohio 43571(419) 877-2733 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Pennsylvania Academy of Natural SciencesDrexel University1900 Benjamin Franklin ParkwayPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania 19103(215) 299-1000 Year-round Hershey Gardens170 Hotel RoadHershey, Pennsylvania 17033(717) 534-3492 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Phipps ConservatoryOne Schenley ParkPittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213(412) 441-4442 Seasonal. Call before you visit. South Carolina Cypress Gardens3030 Cypress Gardens RoadMoncks Corner, South Carolina 29461(843) 553-0515 Year-round South Dakota Sertoma Butterfly House4320 Oxbow Ave.Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57106(605) 334-9466 Year-round Tennessee Tennessee AquariumOne Broad St.Chattanooga, Tennessee 37402(800) 262-0695 Year-round Texas Moody Gardens1 Hope Blvd.Galveston, Texas 77554(800) 582-4673 Year-round The Houston Museum of Natural ScienceCockrell Butterfly Center5555 Hermann Park DriveHouston, Texas 77030(713) 639-4629 Year-round San Antonio ZooCaterpillar Flight School3903 N. St. Marys St.San Antonio, Texas 78212(210) 734-7184 Seasonal. Call before you visit. Texas Discovery GardensRosine Smith Sammons Butterfly House Insectarium3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.Gate 6 at Fair ParkDallas, Texas 75210(214) 428-7476 Year-round Wisconsin Beaver Creek ReserveS1 County Highway KFall Creek, Wisconsin 54742(715) 877-2212 Seasonal. Call before you visit.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
By the year 1860, the bloodshed that would develop into the Civil War had become inevitable. After being delayed through compromise multiple times, the election of Lincoln as the 16th president proved to be the final straw in the war over sectional conflicts. Since the invention of the cotton gin in the late 18th century by Eli Whitney, The North and South began courses with two opposite trajectories, both economically and socially. Countless events from 1800 to 1860 drove the regions further apart, and although the North and the South tried to reconcile their differences with compromises in 1820 and in 1850, both attempts failed in the end. Friction between the North and South had been steadily increasing since the Missouri compromise in 1820, which effectively divided the North and South into free and slave states, respectively. While this worked to delay further conflict, it merely postponed the conflict. The conflict was placed in the limelight yet again with Nat Turners slave rebellion in 1831, The failed WIlmot Proviso in 1846, and then later Henry ClayÃ¢â¬â¢s Compromise of 1850, which solely postponed violent confrontation yet again. The latest compromise successfully delayed confrontation for four more years, until Ã¢â¬Å"Bleeding KansasÃ¢â¬ , which was, in fact, a direct result of the compromise of 1850. Three years after Bleeding Kansas, there was the horrible SCOTUS decision on the case of Dred Scott vs. Sanford, in which the supreme court essentially stated slaves wereShow MoreRelatedManifest Destiny : A True Sign Of Progress For The United States966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreinvigorated sectional struggle s over the question of slavery in territories and the country overall. These conflicts that would accumulate to become the Civil War included the underlying ideological distinctions between the two regions, new abolitionist movement, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act as the violence stemming from sectionalism would increase and the differences between the North and South would become irreconcilable. The ultimate cause of all sectional conflicts in the mid-1800sRead MoreInterpreting The Consequences And Causations Of The American Civil War1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInterpreting the consequences and causations of the American Civil war is a complex and multifarious issue that is defined by two predominant archetypes, the revisionist and fundamentalist viewpoints. The multiple revisionist viewpoints emphasize different interpretations of the origins and significance of the Civil War such as a Southern constitutional viewpoint, politics, economics, sectional differences between the North and South, or the great slave power conspiracy. Moreover, while some of theseRead MoreThe United States Essay1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstart of the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and the mid 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s, the United States acquired a vast amount of territory through wars, annexation, and purchases. Beginning with Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana purchase in 1803, the United States began a campaign to acquire al l the territory west of the Mississippi River and reach the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This time period would become known as Manifest Destiny. Over the five decades that Manifest Destiny lasted politics and the government changed along with the geographicRead MoreUS Sectionalism Essay939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFrom colonial times there were differences in geography that gave rise to variations in culture and economy in the United States. Due to the differing characteristics, a sectional economy molded the United States into two distinct regions: the north and the south. The north, a commercial society, which supported industry and commerce while the south, an agrarian civilization, flourished in the production of raw materials with use of slaves. The two economies were both self-supporting and capableRead MoreAmerican History : The Mexican American War Essay1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStates, war has been a constant factor within the political sphere. From these wars the U.S obta ined power, land, and status unseen and unparalleled by any civilization in humankind. One of the earliest wars that allowed the United States to grow into the global power it is today was the Mexican-American war. This war not only shaped American politics for decades, but also fueled the sectional crisis that culminated into the infamous Civil War. Being the new countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first armed conflict fought mainlyRead MoreBorder War By Stanley Harrold1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the book Border War, Stanley Harrold specifically searches the ideas of social clashes between the North and South before the civil war actually began. Harrold s research solely states the history leading up to the war, which clearly emphasizes the role of slavery and its importance in the history. Stanley Harrold stresses the real challenge of slavery especially in the south and in areas in which it did not exist. According to the book, Harrold specifically states that the U.S had a problemRead More Wha t was the 1850 Compromise and Why did it Fail? Essay1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrolled into a single omnibus bill, which offered a solution to the growing sectional conflict over slavery and westward expansion, which arose from the 1846 Mexican War. The 1850 Compromise, which Senator Douglas stripped down and effectively helped pass, failed for a number of reasons, the greatest of which was that it was unable to please both anti-slave and pro-slave groups. In fact it merely papered over the crack, and did not prove, as Daniel Webster a Clay supporter had hoped, aRead MoreWhat Was the 1850 Compromise and Why Did It Fail?1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswere rolled into a single Ã¢â¬ËomnibusÃ¢â¬â¢ bill, which offered a solution to the growing sectional conflict over slavery and westward expansion, which arose from the 1846 Mexican War. The 1850 Compromise, which Senator Douglas stripped down and effectively helped pass, failed for a number of reasons, the greatest of which was that it was unable to please both anti-slave and pro-slave groups. In fact it merely Ã¢â¬Ëpapered over the crackÃ¢â¬â¢, and did not prove, as Daniel Webster a Clay supporter had hoped, Ã¢â¬Ëa finalityRead More1850s Dbq Essay732 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages1850Ã¢â¬â¢s DBQ Essay Ã¢â¬Å"In a government where sectional interests and feelings may come into conflict, the sole security for permanence and peace is to be found in a Constitution whose provisions are inviolableÃ¢â¬ (Document B). But, what if the answer is not found in the Constitution? At this time there was an increasing sectional conflict between the North and the South. The problems arose mainly from the issue of slavery, and came largely after the Mexican war. Although the issue of slavery had neverRead MoreThe Quest For Room By William Barney1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesplace to expand slavery if the territories had not been free-soil. The reason for this article was to show us how prominent the sectional differences were in the nineteenth century because of the argument over slavery. This, in turn, led to the secession of the Southern states from the Union as they formed the Confederacy; this dug the nation into a deep-pitted civil war. Critical Summary In BarneyÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, his main contention was to show that slavery was solely based on expansion into new territories